Planetary Missions

Note: Launches of Soviet spacecraft occurred from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, USSR, unless noted.
Launches of US spacecraft occurred from Cape Canaveral, FL, unless noted.

Sputnik USSR – Oct 4, 1957 – first satellite
Launched 19.28.34 GMT
Korabl 4 USSR – Oct 10, 1960 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit
Korabl 5 USSR – Oct 14, 1960 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit
Mariner 2 USA – Aug 27, 1962 – Venus Flyby
Launched at 6:53:13 UT
passed Venus at a distance of 41,000 km on December 14, 1962.
Korabl 11 USSR – Oct 24, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed to leave Earth orbit
Mars 1 USSR – Nov 1, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Lost communications Mar. 21, 1963
Korabl 13 USSR – Nov 4, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit, reentered Nov. 5, 1962.
Mariner 3 USA – Nov 5, 1964 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Launch failure, entered solar orbit
Mariner 4 USA – Nov 26, 1964 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 14:42 UT
Reached Mars on July 14, 1965, and returned 21 complete pictures. Closest approach was 9,846 km from the Martian surface. Lost signal acquisition October 1965. Data acquisition resumed in late 1966 and continued until December 20, 1967.
Zond 2 USSR – Nov 30, 1964 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Lost communications May 1965
Zond 3 USSR – Jul 18, 1965 – Mars Flyby
Photographed Moon, reached Mars orbit
Venera 4 USSR – Jun 12, 1967 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 5 USA – Jun 14, 1967 – Venus Flyby
Launched at 06:01:00 UT
It was the backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 mission and then it was programmed for Venus. It passed within 4,000 km on October 19, 1967.
Venera 5 USSR – Jan 5, 1969 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Venera 6 USSR – Jan 10, 1969 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 6 USA – Feb 24, 1969 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 01:29:00 UT
Used exclusively for planetary data acquisition; no data were obtained during the trip to Mars or beyond Mars. Mariner 6 passed within 3,431 km on July 31, 1969. Data from it were used to program
Mariner 7.
Mariner 7 USA – Mar 27, 1969 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 22:22:00 UT
Identical in construction to Mariner 6, it also was used to gather planetary data exclusively. It passed 3,430 km from Mars on August 5, 1969.
(None Given) USSR – Mar 27, 1969 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Believed to have been a launch failure.
(None Given) USA – Apr 14, 1969 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Venera 7 USSR – Aug 17, 1970 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 8 USA – May 8, 1971 – Mars Orbiter (aborted)
Failed to reach orbit
Kosmos 419 USSR – May 10, 1971 – Mars Orbiter (aborted)
Failed to leave Earth orbit; reentered the atmosphere and burned up.
Mars 2 USSR – May 19, 1971 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Orbited Mars; descent module crashed Nov. 27
Mars 3 USSR – May 28, 1971 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Orbited Mars; descent module failed upon landing Dec. 2
Mariner 9 USA – May 30, 1971 – Mars Orbiter & Atmospheric Probe
Originally paired for this mission with Mariner 8, which failed, Mariner
9 combined mission objectives of both Mariner 8 (mapping 70 % of the
Martian surface) and Mariner 9 (a study of temporal atmospheric changes
and on the surface). It arrived at Mars on November 14, 1971. After
depleting its supply of attitude control gas, the spacecraft was turned off
October 27, 1972.
Pioneer 10 USA – Mar 3, 1972 – Jupiter Flyby
Launched at 1:49:00 UT
Pioneer 11 USA – Apr 6, 1973 – Jupiter & Saturn Flyby
Launched at 2:11:00 UT
Mars 4 USSR – Jul 21, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Failed to orbit, flew by Feb. 10
Mars 5 USSR – Jul 25, 1973 – Mars Landing (partially aborted)
Entered orbit of Mars Feb. 12, 1974; partially successful.
Mars 6 USSR – Aug 5, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Descent module communications failure just before landing Mar. 12
Mars 7 USSR – Aug 9, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Failed to land; flew by Mar. 9, 1974.
Mariner 10 USA – Nov 3, 1973 – Venus & Mercury Probe
Launched at 05:45:00 UT
Mariner 10 was the first to use the gravitational pull of one planet (Venus) to reach another (Mercury). Instruments measured the atmospheric, surface, and physical characteristics of Mercury and Venus. The spacecraft passed Venus on February 5, 1974, at a distance of 4200 km. It crossed the orbit of Mercury on March 29, 1974, at 20:46 UT, at a distance of about 704 km from the surface. The craft captured data from comet Kohoutek while enroute to Venus. A second encounter with Mercury occurred September 21, 1974, at an altitude of about 47,000 km. A final Mercury encounter at an altitude of 327 km. Tests were continued until March 24, 1975, when mission termination followed the depletion of attitude-control gas.
Venera 9 USSR – Jun 8, 1975 – Venus Lander
Landing occurred on Oct 22, 1975 at 5:13 UT.
Viking 1 USA – Aug 20, 1975 – Mars surface studies
Viking 1 arrived at Mars on June 19, 1976. On July 20, 1976, it landed at
Chryse Planitia (22.27 N, 49.97 W, 2 km below the datum elevation).
Viking 2 USA – Sep 9, 1975 – Mars surface studies
Viking 2 entered Mars orbit on August 7, 1976, and touched down at Utopia
Planitia (47.57 N, 225.74 W) on September 3, 1976.
Voyager 2 USA – Aug 20, 1977 – multi-planet flyby
Actually part of the Mariner series, these two Voyagers were designed to visit
Jupiter and Saturn. Voyager 2 was programmed so that to could be directed toward
Uranus and Neptune to perform similar studies. Arrived at Jupiter July 1979.
Arrived at Saturn Aug 1981.
Voyager 1 USA – Sep 5, 1977 – multi-planet flyby
Although launched after Voyager 2, Voyager 1’s trajectory was faster, allowing
it to arrive at Jupiter in March 1979. Arrived at Saturn Nov. 1980. Then diverted
to Uranus (January 1986) and Neptune (August 1989).
Pioneer Orbiter USA – May 20, 1978 – Venus orbiter
Orbit established December 4, 1978.
Pioneer Multiprobe USA – Aug 8, 1978 – Venus atmospheric probe
Containing one large and three small atmospheric probes, the large probe was
released on November 16, 1978 and the three small probes on November 20. All
four probes entered the Venus atmosphere on December 9.
Suisei JAP – Mar 18, 1985 – Comet Halley Flyby
Flyby occurred Mar 8, 1986
Giotto ESA – Jul 2, 1985 – Comet Halley Flyby
Flyby occurred Mar 13, 1986
Phobos 1 USSR – Aug 5, 1988 – Mars Lander (aborted)
Lost contact Aug. 31
Phobos 2 USSR – Aug 9, 1988 – Mars Lander (aborted)
Orbited Mars 1989 Jan. 29; lost contact Mar. 27, 1989.
Magellan USA – May 4, 1989 – Venus Flyby
10 Aug 1990 – Venus orbit insertion and spacecraft checkout
24 May 1993 – Aerobraking to circular orbit
12 Oct 1994 – Loss of radio signal
13 Oct 1994 – Expected loss of spacecraft
Galileo USA – Oct 18, 1989 – Jupiter Flyby
Launched at 23:23:40 UT from Atlantis Shuttle.
The primary mission is to explore Jupiter and its satellites. In order to
conserve fuel, a series of planetary flybys has taken place in order to
give Galileo a gravity assist to Jupiter. Venus: 10 Feb 1990, Earth/Moon 1:
8 Dec 1990, Gaspra: 29 Oct 1991, Earth/Moon 2: 8 Dec 1992, Ida: 28 Aug
1993. Jupiter arrival: 7 Dec 1995. 1st flyby of the Jovian Moon Callisto,
occurred on 04 Nov 1996. At 13:34 UTC, Galileo’s closest approach was about
1098 km from the surface of Callisto.
Ulysses USA – Oct 6, 1990 – Solar systems astrophysics
Launched at 11:47:16 UT from Space Shuttle Discovery
It is investigating the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary
magnetic field, of galactic cosmic rays and neutral interstellar gas.
Yohkoh JAP – Aug 30, 1991 – Solar flare activity
Mars Observer USA – Sep 15, 1993 – Mars surface studies (aborted)
Launched at 17:05:01 UT
Contact with Mars Observer was lost on August 21, 1993, three days before
scheduled orbit insertion, for unknown reasons. Contact has not been
re-established.
ISO ESA – Nov 17, 1995 – Infrared Space Observatory
Launched at 01:20:04
SOHO ESA – Dec 12, 1995 – Solar probe
Launched from Cape Canaveral, FL
Cluster ESA – Jun 4, 1996 – Earth-Sun interactions (aborted)
Launched at 12:33:59 GMT from Guina Space Center, Kourou, French Guiana.
Guidance failure 37 sec after lift-off: possibly an electrical or software error.
Global Surveyor USA – Nov 7, 1996 – Mars surface studies
Launched at 17:00:50 UT
The spacecraft will arrive at Mars around September, 1997. Aerobraking and thrusters
will produce a nearly circular 2 hour polar orbit. Mapping operations will
begin in January, 1998. Data will be acquired for one Martian year (approx. 2
Earth years). It will be used as a data relay for later U.S. and international
missions over the following three years.
Mars-96 RUS – Nov 16, 1996 – Mars orbiter (abort)
Launched 20:48 GMT from Baikonur Space Center, Yevpatoriya, Kazakstan.
Crashed into Pacific Ocean on Nov 17, 1996 at approximately 1:19 pm GMT.
Location: East of Australia. Probable booster rocket failure.
Mars Pathfinder USA – Dec 4, 1996 – Mars lander
Launched at 1:58:07 EST.
The primary advance in this mission involves the use of a mobile rover
to explore surface terrain.
Cassini USA+ – Oct 15, 1997 – Saturn explorer
launched at 4:43 am EDT. Launch complex 40.
This multinational project has been most infamous for the controversy
over launching such a large quantity of plutonium. It has an extremely
complex trajectory which will take it through much of the Solar System before reaching Saturn.
Nozomi JAP – Jul 3, 1998 – Mars orbiter
launched 18:12 UT. Kagoshima Space Center on the island of Kyushu.
Japan’s first Mars mission. Arrival planned for October 1999. Nozomi
is scheduled to study Mars’ atmosphere, charged particles, and magnetic
field.
Deep Space 1 USA – Oct 24, 1998 – Asteroid flyby
launched 8:08 am EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Scheduled fly by asteroid 1992 KD in July 1999.
The xenon ion engine shut down 4-1/2 minutes after startup on Tuesday,
Nov. 10, 1998 at 2:30 p.m. EST. Unless this is corrected, the flyby cannot occur.

Mars Climate Orbiter US – Dec 11, 1998 – Mars orbiter
launched 13:45:51 EST. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Scheduled to reach Mars in September 1999. Will map martian climate, and
serve as a relay station for the Mars Polar Lander.
A braking rocket was fired on Sep 23, 1999 at 5:01 am EDT during a period
of communication blackout, and the Orbiter did not check in 20 minutes
later at the end of the blackout period. Cause unknown; trajectory of MCO
unknown, although it it thought that it did not crash into the Martian
surface. The bracking rocket was programmed to fire because the craft had
gotten off-course, for unknown reasons.

Mars Polar Lander US – Jan 3, 1999 – Mars lander
launched 15:21:10 EST. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Lost on descent to Martian surface on 3 December 1999. Flight controllers at the
JPL estimate that the lander reached the Martian surface at 76.1 degrees South,
195.3 deg. West at 3:01 p.m. EST. Its subsequent fate is unknown.

Stardust US – Feb 7, 1999 – Comet sampler
launched 16:04:15 EST. Pad 17A
Scheduled to bring back cometary dust sample.

Quick Scatterometer US – Jun 19, 1999 – radar over Earth
launched 7:15 pm PDT. Launch Complex 4 West, Vandenberg

Mars Odyssey US – Apr 7, 2001 – Mars mapping
launched 11:02 EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.

Galaxy Evolution Explorer US – Apr 28, 2003 – orbiting space telescope
launched approx. 9 am EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
experienced excessive high-voltage current draw on March 30, 2006.

Mars Express ESA – Jun 2, 2003 – Mars orbiter & lander
launched 17:45 UT from Baikonur, Kazakhstan
entered orbit 25 December 2003
Beagle orbiter lost after release from orbiter

Deep Impact US – Jan 12, 2005 – comet flyby and impact
launched 1:47:08 pm EST Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL.
Released impactor July 4, 2005 at 1:52 am EDT.
Found water on Comet Tempel 1.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter US – Aug 12, 2005 – telescope to Mars
launched 7:43 am EDT Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Venus Express ESA – Nov 9, 2005 – Venus orbiter
launched 3:33 am UT Baikonur, Kazakhstan
reached final orbit May 7, 2006

New Horizons US – Jan 19, 2006 – Pluto mission
launched 2:00:00 pm EST Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Lunar Exploration Page

Lunar Exploration Timeline

Note: Launches of Soviet spacecraft occurred from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, USSR, unless noted.
Launches of US spacecraft occurred from Cape Canaveral, FL, unless noted.

Luna 2 USSR – Sep 12, 1959 – Impact
Impacted Moon 13 Sep 1959 at 22:02:04 UT
Latitude 29.10 N, Longitude 0.00 – Palus Putredinis
Luna 3 USSR – Oct 4, 1959 – Probe
Launched at 2:24:00 UT.
Ranger 7 USA – Jul 28, 1964 – Impact
Impacted Moon 31 July 1964 at 13:25:49 UT
Latitude 10.35 S, Longitude 339.42 E – Mare Cognitum (Sea of Clouds)
Ranger 8 USA – Feb 17, 1965 – Impact
Impacted Moon 20 February 1965 at 09:57:37 UT
Latitude 2.67 N, Longitude 24.65 E – (Sea of Tranquility
Ranger 9 USA – Mar 21, 1965 – Impact
Impacted Moon 24 March 1965 at 14:08:20 UT
Latitude 12.83 S, Longitude 357.63 E – Alphonsus
Zond 3 USSR – Jul 18, 1965 – Flyby
Launched at 14:38:00 UT
Luna 9 USSR – Jan 31, 1966 – Lander
Launched at 11:45:00 UT
Landed on Moon 03 Feb 1966 at 18:44:52 UT
Latitude 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E – Oceanus Procellarum
1st successful lunar landing.
Luna 10 USSR – Mar 31, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 10:48:00 UT
Surveyor 1 USA – May 30, 1966 – Lander
Landed 02 June 1966, 06:17:37 UT
Latitude 2.45 S, Longitude 316.79 E – Flamsteed P
Lunar Orbiter 1 USA – Aug 10, 1966 – Orbiter
Luna 11 USSR – Aug 24, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 8:09:00 UT
Surveyor 2 USA – Sep 20, 1966 – Lander (aborted)
Crashed on Moon 22 September 1966
Engine failed to ignite – southeast of Copernicus Crater
Luna 12 USSR – Oct 22, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 08:38:00 UT.
Lunar Orbiter 2 USA – Nov 6, 1966 – Orbiter
Luna 13 USSR – Dec 21, 1966 – Lander
Launched at 10:19:00 UT
Landed on Moon 24 Dec 1966 at 18:01:00 UT
Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E – Oceanus Procellarum
Lunar Orbiter 3 USA – Feb 4, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 3 USA – Apr 17, 1967 – Lander
Landed 20 April 1967, 00:04:53 UT
Latitude 2.94 S, Longitude 336.66 E – Oceanus Procellarum
Lunar Orbiter 4 USA – May 8, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 4 USA – July 14, 1967 – Lander (aborted)
Radio contact lost 17 July 1967
2.5 minutes from touchdown – Sinus Medii
Lunar Orbiter 5 USA – Aug 1, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 5 USA – Sep 8, 1967 – Lander
Landed 11 September 1967, 00:46:44 UT
Latitude 1.41 N, Longitude 23.18 E – Sea of Tranquility
Surveyor 6 USA – Nov 7, 1967 – Lander
Landed 10 November 1967, 01:01:06 UT
Latitude 0.46 N, Longitude 358.63 E – Sinus Medii
Surveyor 7 USA – Jan 7, 1968 – Lander
Landed 10 January 1968, 01:05:36 UT
Latitude 41.01 S, Longitude 348.59 E – Tycho North Rim
Luna 14 USSR – Apr 7, 1968 – Orbiter
Zond 5 USSR – Sep 15, 1968 – Return Probe
Satellite contained living biological specimens.
Orbited Moon on Sep 18th. Returned to Earth Sep 21st with cargo intact.
Zond 6 USSR – Nov 10, 1968 – Return Probe
Like Zond 5, contained a biological payload, but the emphasis was more on
surface photography. Orbited Moon Nov 14th; landed in USSR Nov 17th.
Apollo 8 USA – Dec 21, 1968 – Manned Orbiter
Apollo 10 USA – May 18, 1969 – Orbiter
Apollo 11 USA – Jul 16, 1969 – Manned Landing
Zond 7 USSR – Aug 7, 1969 – Return Probe
Flew by Moon on Aug 11; returned to USSR on Aug 14th.
Apollo 12 USA – Nov 14, 1969 – Manned Landing
Apollo 13 USA – Apr 11, 1970 – Manned Landing (aborted)
Luna 16 USSR – Sep 12, 1970 – Sample Return
Landed on Moon 20 Sep 1970 at 05:18:00 UT
Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E – Mare Fecunditatis
Ascent stage landed in USSR on 24 Sep 1970
Zond 8 USSR – Oct 20, 1970 – Return Probe
Flew by Moon Oct 24; returned to Indian Ocean Oct 27th.
Luna 17 USSR – Nov 10, 1970 – Rover
Landed on Moon 17 Nov 1970 at 03:47:00 UT
Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E – Mare Imbrium
Ceased operating Oct 4, 1971
Apollo 14 USA – Jan 31, 1971 – Manned Landing
Apollo 15 USA – Jul 26, 1971 – Manned Landing
Luna 19 USSR – Sep 28, 1971 – Orbiter
Luna 20 USSR – Feb 14, 1972 – Sample Return
Landed on Moon 21 Feb 1972 at 19:19:00 UT
Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 56.50 E – Mare Fecunditatis
Ascent stage landed in USSR on Feb 25, 1972
Apollo 16 USA – Apr 16, 1972 – Manned Landing
Apollo 17 USA – Dec 7, 1972 – Manned Landing
Luna 21 USSR – Jan 8, 1973 – Rover
Landed on Moon 15 Jan 1973 at 23:35:00 UT
Latitude 25.51 N, Longitude 30.38 E – Mare Serenitatis
Luna 22 USSR – Jun 2, 1974 – Orbiter
Luna 24 USSR – Aug 14, 1976 – Sample Return
Launched at 14:04:00 UT
Landed on Moon 18 Aug 1976 at 02:00:00 UT
Latitude 12.25 N, Longitude 62.20 E – Mare Crisium
Ascent stage landed in USSR on Aug 22, 1976.
Galileo USA – Oct 18, 1989 – Flyby
Launched at 23:23:40 UT from Atlantis Shuttle.
Imaged Moon on its trajectory to Jupiter.
Lunar Prospector USA – Jan 6, 1998 – Lander
Launched at 9:28:44 p.m. EST from Complex 46.

Space Accident Data: Non-planetary Missions

Clementine USA – Jan 25, 1994 – Orbiter
Launched at 16:34 UT from Vandenburg AFB
Originally slated to also flyby asteroid 1620 Geographos, a malfunction
in a thruster on May 7, 1994 14:39 UT resulted in abort of the asteroid
part of the mission.
GPS/Delta USA – Jan 25, 1997 – Earth satellite
Launched at 11:28 am EST from Cape Canaveral.
Exploded 21 sec after launch, spraying debris over the launch site and
neighboring Brevard County.
Titan 4A USA – Aug 12, 1998 – Top Secret Earth satellite
Launched at 7:30 am EDT from Cape Canaveral.
Rocket began to self-destruct 40 seconds into launch; had some problems
with toxic fuel debris. Cause of crash: electrical outage just before explosion.
Delta III USA – Aug 26, 1998 – Inaugural flight
Launched at 9:17 pm EDT from Cape Canaveral.
Exploded 1 minute into flight.
SMART-1 ESA – Sep 27, 2003 – lunar science
Launched 23:14 UT Kourou, French Guiana.

Space Data: Human Flight

Note: For more information about the Shuttle Program, See NASA’s Shuttle web page .

Sputnik 1 OCT 4, 1957 21: 0: 0 GMT Tyuratam USSR 45 N 38.0 63 E 16.0
Source: Campion’s citation; with Tyuratam coordinates

Explorer 1 JAN 31, 1958 22:48 EST 1st US satellite. Launched from Pad 26A. Discovered Van Allen belt of radiation.

Vanguard 1 MAR 17, 1958 7:15 EST 1st separable orbiting satellite (i.e., not attached to booster). Still functioning.

NASA JUL 29, 1958 12: 0: 0 EDT WASHINGTON, DC 38 N 54.0 77 W 2.0 Noon chart. Date NASA charter signed by Eisenhower. Time unknown.

NASA – 1st Day OCT 1, 1958 9: 0: 0 EDT WASHINGTON, DC 38 N 54.0 77 W 2.07F Source: Estimate 9:00 am. First day of business for NASA.

Vostok & Voskhod Programs: USSR

Vostok 1 APR 12, 1961 9:07 Moscow Time First manned space flight; Yuri Gagarin

Vostok 2 AUG 6, 1961 9:40 M.T. reached orbit Gherman Titov

Vostok 3 AUG 11, 1962 11:30 Dual flight with Vostok 4; Andrian Nikolayev

Vostok 4 AUG 12, 1962 11:02 Passed within 6.5 km of Vostok 3; Ravel Romanovich Popovich

Vostok 5 JUN 14, 1963 14:59 Dual flight with Vostok 6; Valeri Fyodorovich Bykovsky

Vostok 6 JUN 16, 1963 12:30 First woman in space; Valentina Tereshkova

Voskhod 1 OCT 12, 1964 First 3 man crew; (squeezed into a stripped Vostok craft with no spacesuits nor ejection seats.) V.M. Komarov, K.P. Feoktistov, B.B. Yegorov

Voskhod 2 MAR 18, 1965 First space walk; Aleksei Leonov (walker), P.I.Belyavev

Mir Space Station: USSR/Russia

Mir Station: last crew exit AUG 27, 1999 21:14 GMT Undocked from space station.
Soyuz capsule landed in Kazakstan Aug 28, 1999 00:35 GMT.

Mercury & X-15 Programs: USA

Freedom 7 MAY 5, 1961 9:34:00 EST 1st manned Mercury Mission. A.B. Shepard

Liberty Bell 7 JUL 21, 1961 7:20:00 EST V.I. Grissom

Friendship 7 FEB 20, 1962 9:47:00 EST 1st Mercury orbital flight. J.H. Glenn

Aurora 7 MAY 24, 1962 7:45:00 EST M.S. Carpenter

X-15 No. 3, Flight 7 JUL 17, 1962 The Air Force had designated 50 miles altitude as the limit to exceed to get astronaut’s wings; and this flight, launched midair from a flight originating from Edwards A.F. Base, exceeded 59 miles. Pilot: R.M. White

Sigma 7 OCT 3, 1962 8:15:00 EST W.M. Schirra

X-15 No. 3, Flight 14 JAN 17, 1963 J.A. Walker

Faith 7 MAY 15, 1963 9:04:00 EST L.G. Cooper

X-15 No. 3, Flight 20 JUN 27, 1963 R.A. Rushworth

X-15 No. 3, Flight 21 JUL 19, 1963 J.A. Walker

X-15 No. 3, Flight 22 AUG 22, 1963 J.A. Walker

Gemini Program: USA

Gemini 3 MAR 23, 1965 9:24:00 EST V.I. Grissom & J.W. Young

Gemini 4 JUN 3, 1965 10:16:00 EST J.A. McDivitt & E.H. White

Gemini 5 AUG 21, 1965 8:59:59 EST L.G. Cooper & C. Conrad

Gemini 7 DEC 4, 1965 14:30:04 EST F. Borman & J.L. Lovell

Gemini 6 (GT-6A) DEC 15, 1965 8:37:26 EST W.M. Schirra & T.P. Stafford

Gemini 8 MAR 16, 1966 11:41:00 EST N.A. Armstrong & D.R. Scott

Gemini 9 JUN 3, 1966 8:39:33 EST T.P. Stafford & E.A. Cernan

Gemini 10 JUL 18, 1966 17:20:27 EST J.W. Young & M. Collins

Gemini 11 SEP 12, 1966 9:42:27 EST C. Conrad & R.F. Gordon

Gemini 12 NOV 11, 1966 15:46:33 EST J.A. Lovell & E.E. Aldrin

Apollo Program: USA

Apollo Fatalities JAN 27, 1967 18:30:25 EST Scheduled as Apollo 1. V.I. Grissom, J.W. Young & Chafee. Died in fire.

Apollo 7 OCT 11, 1968 11: 2:45 EDT 1st Apollo mission

Apollo 8 DEC 21, 1968 7:51: 0 EST Borman-Lovell-Anders

Apollo 9 MAR 3, 1969 11: 7: 0 EST McDivitt-Scott-Schweickart

Apollo 10 MAY 18, 1969 12:49: 0 EDT Stafford-Young-Cernan

Apollo 11 JUL 16, 1969 9:32: 0 EDT 1st Moon landing: Armstrong-Collins-Aldrin
Moon Landing JUL 20, 1969 20:17:40 GMT
1st Footstep on Moon JUL 20, 1969 22:56:20 EDT

Apollo 12 NOV 14, 1969 11:22: 0 EST 2nd Moon landing: Conrad – Gordon – Bean

Apollo 13 APR 11, 1970 14:13: 0 EST Explosion on-board: Lovell – Swigert – Haise

Apollo 14 JAN 31, 1971 16: 3: 0 EST Shepard – Roosa – Mitchell; returned to the Moon

Apollo 15 JUL 26, 1971 9:34: 0 EDT Scott – Irwin – Worden

Apollo 16 APR 16, 1972 12:54: 0 EST Young – Mattingly – Duke

Apollo 17 DEC 7, 1972 0:33: 0 EST Cernan – Evans – Schmitt: last Lunar mission

Space Shuttle Program: USA

STS-1 (Columbia) APR 12, 1981 7: 0:03 EST Pad 39A: John Young & Robert Crippen

STS-2 (Columbia) NOV 12, 1981 10:09:59 EST Pad 39A: Joseph Engle & Richard Truly Mission cut short because of fuel cell malfunction.

STS-3 (Columbia) MAR 22, 1982 11: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: Jack Lousma & Charles Fullerton

STS-4 (Columbia) JUN 27, 1982 11: 0: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Ken Mattingly & Hank Hartsfield

STS-5 (Columbia) NOV 11, 1982 7:19: 0 EST Pad 39A: Vance Brand, Robert Overmyer, William Lenoir & Joseph Allen

STS-6 (Challenger) APR 4, 1983 13:30: 0 EST Pad 39A: Paul Weitz, Karol Bobko, Franklin Musgrave & Donald Peterson

STS-7 (Challenger) JUN 18, 1983 7:33: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Robert Crippen, Rick Hauck, John Fabian, Sally Ride & Norman Thagard

STS-8 (Challenger) AUG 30, 1983 2:32: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Richard Truly, Daniel Brandenstein, Dale Gardner, Guion Bluford & Wm Thornton

STS-9 (Columbia) NOV 28, 1983 11: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: John Young, B.H. Shaw, O.K. Garriott, R.A.R. Parker, U. Merbold & B.K. Lichten

STS-41B (Challenger) FEB 3, 1984 8: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: V.D. Brand, R.L. Gibson, B. McCandless, R.E. McNair & R.L. Stewart

STS-41C (Challenger) APR 6, 1984 8:58: 0 EST Pad 39A: R. Crippen, F. Scobee, T. Hart, J. van Hoften & G. Nelson

STS-41D (Discovery) AUG 30, 1984 8:41:50 EDT Pad 39A: H. Hartsfield, M. Coats, J. Resnik, S. Hawley, R. Mullane & C. Walker

STS-41G (Challenger) OCT 13, 1984 7:03: 0 EDT Pad 39A: R. Crippen, J. McBride, S. Ride, D. Leestma, K. Sullivan, M. Garneau & P.C. Power

STS-51A (Discovery) NOV 8, 1984 7:15: 0 EST Pad 39A: F. Hauck, D. Walker, J. Allen, A. Fisher, D. Gardner & C. Walker

STS-51C (Discovery) JAN 27, 1985 14:50: 0 EST Pad 39A: K. Mattingly, L. Shriver, E. Onizuka, J. Buchli & G. Payton

STS-51D (Discovery) APR 12, 1985 8:59:05 EST Pad 39A: K.J. Bobko, D.E. Williams, S.D. Griggs, J.A. Hoffman, M.R. Seddon, E. Garn & C.D. Walker

STS-51B (Challenger) APR 29, 1985 12:02:18 EDT Pad 39A: R.F. Overmyer, F.D. Gregory, N.E. Thagard, W.E. Thorton, D.L. Lind, L. van den Berg & T.G. Wang

STS-51G (Discovery) JUN 17, 1985 7:33: 0 EDT Pad 39A: D.C. Brandstein, J.O. Creighton, J.M. Fabian, S.W. Lucid, S.R. Nagel, P. Baudry & A.A. Al-Saud

STS-51F (Challenger) JUL 29, 1985 17: 0: 0 EDT Pad 39A: C.G. Fullerton, R.D. Bridges, A.W. England, K.G. Henize, F.S. Musgrave, L.W. Acton & J.-D. Bartoe

STS-51I (Discovery) AUG 27, 1985 6:58:01 EDT Pad 39A: J.H. Engle, R.O. Covey, W.F. Fisher, J.M. Lounge & J.D.A. van Hoften

STS-51J (Atlantis) OCT 3, 1985 11:15:30 EDT Pad 39A: K.J. Bobko, R.J. Grabe, D.C. Hilmers, R.L. Stewart & W. Pailes

STS-61A (Challenger) OCT 30, 1985 12: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: H.W. Hartsfield, S.R. Nagel, G.S. Bluford, J.F. Buchli, B.J. Dunbar, R. Furrer, E.W. Messerschmid & W. Ockels

STS-61B (Atlantis) NOV 27, 1985 19:29: 0 EST Pad 39A: B.H. Shaw, B.D. O’Connor, M.L. Cleave, S.C. Spring, J.L. Ross, R.N. Vela & C.D. Walker

STS-61C (Columbia) JAN 12, 1986 6:55: 0 EST Pad 39A: R.L. Gibson, C.F. Bolden, S.A. Hawley, G.D. Nelson, F.R. Chang-Diaz, R.J. Cenker & C.W. Nelson

STS-51L (Challenger) JAN 28, 1986 11:38: 0 EST Pad 39B: F.R. Scobee, M.J. Smith, J.A. Resnik, R.E. McNair, E.S. Onizuka, G.B. Jarvis & S.C. McAuliffe
Explosion JAN 28, 1986 11:39:13 EST 18 miles from Pad. Cause: O-Ring failure in Solid Rocket Booster

STS-26 (Discovery) SEP 29, 1988 11:37: 0 EDT Pad 39B: F.H. Hauck, R.O. Covey, J.M. Lounge, G.D. Nelson & D.C. Hilmers

STS-27 (Atlantis) DEC 2, 1988 9:30:34 EST Pad 39B: R.L. Gibson, G.S. Gardner, R.M. Mullane, J.L. Ross & W.M. Shepherd

STS-29 (Discovery) MAR 13, 1989 9:57: 0 EST Pad 39B: M.L. Coats, J.E. Blaha, J.P. Bagian, J.F. Buchli & R.C. Springer

STS-30 (Atlantis) MAY 4, 1989 14:48:59 EDT Pad 39B: D.M. Walker, R.J. Grabe, N.E. Thagard, M.L. Cleave & M.C. Lee Launched Magellan spacecraft to Venus

STS-28 (Columbia) AUG 8, 1989 8:37: 0 EDT Pad 39B: B.H. Shaw, R.N. Richards, J.C. Adamson, D.C. Leestma & M.N. Brown

STS-34 (Atlantis) OCT 18, 1989 12:53:40 EDT Pad 39B: D.E. Williams, M.J. McCulley, F.R. Chang-Diaz, S.W. Lucid & E.S. Baker Launched Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter

STS-33 (Discovery) NOV 22, 1989 19:23:30 EST Pad 39B: F.D. Gregory, J.E. Blaha, F.S. Musgrave, M.L. Carter & K.C. Thornton

STS-32 (Columbia) JAN 9, 1990 7:35: 0 EST Pad 39A: D.C. Brandenstein, J.D. Wetherbee, B.J. Dunbar, G.D. Low & M.S. Ivins

STS-36 (Atlantis) FEB 28, 1990 2:50:22 EST Pad 39A: J.O. Creighton, J.H. Casper, R.M. Mullane, D.C. Hilmers & P.J. Thuot

STS-31 (Discovery) APR 24, 1990 8:33:51 EDT Pad 39B: L.J. Shriver, C.F. Bolden, S.A. Hawley, B. McCandless & K.D. Sullivan

STS-41 (Discovery) OCT 6, 1990 7:47:15 EDT Pad 39B: R.N. Richards, R.D. Cabana, W.M. Shepherd, B.E. Melnick & T.D. Akers Launched Ulysses spacecraft to Sun

STS-38 (Atlantis) NOV 15, 1990 18:48:13 EST Pad 39A: R.O. Covey, F.L. Culbertson, R.C. Springer, C.J. Meade & C.D. Gemar

STS-35 (Columbia) DEC 2, 1990 1:49:01 EST Pad 39B: V.D. Brand, G.S. Gardner, J.A. Hoffman, J.M. Lounge, R.A. Parker, S.T. Durrance & R.A. Parise

STS-37 (Atlantis) APR 5, 1991 9:22:44 EST Pad 39B: S.R. Nagel, K.D. Cameron, J.L. Ross, J. Apt & L.M. Godwin

STS-39 (Discovery) APR 28, 1991 7:33:14 EDT Pad 39A: M.L. Coats, L.B. Hammond, G.S. Bluford, G.J. Harbaugh, R.J. Hieb, D.R. McMonagle & C.L. Veach

STS-40 (Columbia) JUN 5, 1991 9:24:51 EDT Pad 39B: B.D. O’Connor, S.M. Gutierrez, M.R. Seddon, J.P. Bagian, T.E. Jernigan, F.D. Gaffney & M.-H. Fulford

STS-43 (Atlantis) AUG 2, 1991 11:01:59 EDT Pad 39A: J.E. Blaha, M.A. Baker, S.W. Lucid, J.C. Adamson & G.D. Low

STS-48 (Discovery) SEP 12, 1991 19:11:04 EDT Pad 39A: J.O. Creighton, K.S. Reightler, J.F. Buchli, C.D. Gernar & M.N. Brown

STS-44 (Atlantis) NOV 24, 1991 18:44: 0 EST Pad 39A: F.D. Gregory, T.T. Henricks, F.S. Musgrave, M. Runco, J.S. Voss & T.J. Hennen

STS-42 (Discovery) JAN 22, 1992 9:52:3 EST Pad 39A: R.J. Grabe, S.S. Oswald, N.E. Thagard, D.C. Hilmers, W.F. Ready, R.L. Bondar & U.D. Merbold

STS-45 (Atlantis) MAR 24, 1992 8:13: 0 EST Pad 39A: C.F. Bolden, B. Duffy, K.D. Sullivan, D.C. Leestma, C.M. Foale, B.K. Lichtenberg & D.D. Frimout

STS-49 (Endeavour) MAY 7, 1992 19:40: 0 EDT Pad 39B: D.C. Brandenstein, K.P. Chilton, P.J. Thuot, K.C. Thornton, R.J. Hieb, T.D. Akers & B.E. Melnick Rescued INTELSAT VI

STS-50 (Columbia) JUN 25, 1992 12:12:23 EDT Pad 39A: R.N. Richards, K.D. Bowersox, B.J. Dunbar, E.S. Baker, C.J. Meade, L.J. DeLucas & E.H. Trinh Microgravity Laboratory-I

STS-46 (Atlantis) JUL 31, 1992 9:56:48 EDT Pad 39B: L.J. Shriver, A.M. Allen, J.A. Hoffman, F.R. Chang-Diaz, C. Nicollier, M.S. Ivins & F. Malerba Tethered satellite system

STS-47 (Endeavour) SEP 12, 1992 10:23: 0 EDT Pad 39B: R.L. Gibson, C.L. Brown, M.C. Lee, N.J. Davis, J. Apt, M.C. Jemison & M. Mohri Spacelab-J (Japanese)

STS-52 (Columbia) OCT 22, 1992 13:09:40 EDT Pad 39B: J.B. Wetherbee, M.A. Baker, C.L. Veach, W.M. Shepherd, T.E. Jernigan & S.G. MacLean Laser Geodynamic Satellite II

STS-53 (Discovery) DEC 2, 1992 8:24: 0 EST Pad 39A: D.M. Walker, R.D. Cabana, G.S. Bluford, J.S. Voss & M.R. Clifford Classified Department of Defense primary payload,

STS-54 (Endeavour) JAN 13, 1993 8:59:30 EST Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, D.R. McMonagle, M. Runco, G.J. Harbaugh & S.J. Helms Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

STS-56 (Discovery) APR 8, 1993 1:29: 0 EDT Pad 39B: K.D. Cameron, S.S. Oswald, C.M. Foale, K.D. Cockrell & E. Ochoa Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-2

STS-55 (Columbia) APR 26, 1993 10:50: 0 EDT Pad 39A: S.R. Nagel, T.T. Henricks, J.L. Ross, C.J. Precort, B.A. Harris, U. Walter & H. Schlegel Spacelab (German)

STS-57 (Endeavour) JUN 21, 1993 9:07: 0 EDT Pad 39B: R.J. Grabe, B. Duffy, G.D. Low, N.J. Sherlock, P.J. Wisoff & J.E. Voss SPACEHAB

STS-51 (Discovery) SEP 12, 1993 7:45: 0 EDT Pad 39B: F.L. Culbertson, W.F. Readdy, J.H. Newman, D.W. Bursch & C.E. Walz Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

STS-58 (Columbia) OCT 18, 1993 10:53: 0 EDT Pad 39B: J.E. Blaha, R.A. Searfoss, M.R. Seddon, W.S. McArthur, D.A. Wolf, S.W. Lucid & M. Fettman life sciences research

STS-61 (Endeavour) DEC 2, 1993 4:26: 0 EST Pad 39B: R.O. Covey, K.D. Bowersox, F.S. Musgrave, K.C. Thorton, C. Nicollier, J.A. Hoffman & T.D. Akers Hubble Space Telescope Servicing – 1

STS-60 (Discovery) FEB 3, 1994 7:10:05 EST Pad 39A: C.F. Bolden, K.S. Reightler, N.J. Davis, R.M. Sega, F.R. Chang-Diaz & S. Krikalev Wake Shield Facility

STS-62 (Columbia) MAR 4, 1994 8:53:01 EST Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, A.M. Allen, P.J. Thuot, C.D. Gemar & M.S. Ivins Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

STS-59 (Endeavour) APR 9, 1994 7:05: 0 EDT Pad 39A: S.M. Gutierrez, K.P. Chilton, L.M. Godwin, J. Apt, M.R. Clifford & T.D. Jones Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) payload

STS-65 (Columbia) JUL 8, 1994 0:43: 0 EDT Pad 39A: R.D. Cabana, J.D. Halsell, R.J. Hieb, C.E. Walz, L. Chiao, D.A. Thomas, C. Naito-Mukai & J.-J. Favier Spacelab – International Microgravity Laboratory

STS-64 (Discovery) SEP 9, 1994 18:22:35 EDT Pad 39B: R.N. Richards, L.B. Hammond, J.M. Linenger, S.J. Helms, C.J. Meade & M.C. Lee LIDAR In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE)

STS-68 (Endeavour) SEP 30, 1994 7:16: 0 EDT Pad 39A: M.A. Baker, T.W. Wilcutt, T.D. Jones, S.L. Smith, D.W. Bursch & P.J.K. Wisoff Space Radar Laboratory (SRL)

STS-66 (Atlantis) NOV 3, 1994 11:59:43 EDT Pad 39B: D.R. McMonagle, C.L. Brown, E. Ochoa, S.E. Parazynski, J.R. Tanner & J.-F. Clervoy Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Sciences – 3

STS-63 (Discovery) FEB 3, 1995 12:22:03 EST Pad 39B: J.D. Wetherbee, E.M. Collins, C.M. Foale, J.E. Voss, B.A. Harris & V.G. Titov Mir Rendevous

STS-67 (Endeavour) MAR 2, 1995 1:38:34 EST Pad 39A: S.S. Oswald, W.G. Gregory, T.A. Jernigan, J.M. Grunsfeld, W.B. Lawrence, R.A. Parise & S.T. Durrance Ultraviolet experiments

STS-71 (Atlantis) JUN 27, 1995 14:32:19 EDT Pad 39A: R.L. Gibson, C.J. Precourt, E.S. Baker, B.J. Dunbar, G.J. Harbaugh, A. Solovyev & N. Budarin (up), & N.E. Thagard, V. Dezhurov & G. Strekalov (down) 1st Mir Docking

STS-70 (Discovery) JUL 13, 1995 9:41:55 EDT Pad 39B: T.T. Henricks, K.R. Kregel, N.J. Currie, D.A. Thomas & M.E. Weber Tracking Data & Relay Satellite

STS-69 (Endeavour) SEP 7, 1995 11:09:00 EDT Pad 39A: D.M. Walker, K.D. Cockrell, J.S. Voss, J.H. Newman & M.L. Garnhardt Wake Shield Facility

STS-73 (Columbia) OCT 20, 1995 9:53:00 EDT Pad 39B: K.D. Bowersox, K.V. Rominger, K.C. Thornton, C.G. Coleman, M.E. Lopez-Alegria, F.W. Leslie & A. Sacco second US Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)

STS-74 (Atlantis) NOV 12, 1995 7:30:43 EST Pad 39A: K.D. Cameron, J.D. Halsell, J.L. Ross, W.S. McArthur & C.A. Hadfield 2nd Mir Docking

STS-72 (Endeavour) JAN 11, 1996 4:41:00 EST Pad 39B: B. Duffy, B.W. Jett, L. Chiao, D.T. Barry, W.E. Scott & K. Wakata Capture and return Japanese microgravity research spacecraft

STS-75 (Columbia) FEB 22, 1996 15:18:00 EST Pad 39B: am Allen, S.J. Horowitz, F.R. Chang-Diaz, M. Cheli, J.A. Hoffman, C. Nicollier & U. Guidoni Tethered satellite experiments

STS-76 (Atlantis) MAR 22, 1996 3:13:04 EST Pad 39B: K.P. Chilton, R.A. Searfoss, S.W. Lucid (up), L.M. Godwin, M.R. Clifford & R.M. Sega 3rd Mir Docking

STS-77 (Endeavour) MAY 19, 1996 6:30:00 EDT Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, C.L. Brown, D.W. Bursch, M. Runco, M. Garneau & A.S.W. Thomas Commercial Spacehab research

STS-78 (Columbia) JUN 20, 1996 10:49:00 EDT Pad 39B: T.T. Henricks, K.R. Kregel, S.J. Helms, R.M. Linnehan, C.E. Brady, J.-J. Favier & R.B. Thirsk Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission

STS-79 (Atlantis) SEP 16, 1996 4:54:49 EDT Pad 39A: W. F. Readdy, T.W. Wilcutt, T.D. Akers, J.E. Blaha (up), J. Apt, C.E. Walz & S.W. Lucid (down) 4th Mir Docking

STS-80 (Columbia) NOV 19, 1996 12:55:47 EST Pad 39B: K.D. Cockrell, R. Rominger, T.E. Jernigan, T.D. Jones & F.S. Musgrave Wake Shield Facility. Problems with door aborted space walks.

STS-81 (Atlantis) JAN 12, 1997 4:27:23 EST Pad 39B: M. Baker, B. Jett, J. Grunsfeld, M.S. Ivins, P.J. Wisoff & J.M. Linenger, J. Blaha 5th Mir Docking

STS-82 (Discovery) FEB 11, 1997 3:55:17 EST Pad 39A: K.D. Bowersox, S. Horowitz, M.C. Lee, S.A. Hawley, G.J. Harbaugh, S.L. Smith & J.R. Tanner Hubble Space Telescope Servicing – 2

STS-83 (Columbia) APR 4, 1997 14:20:32 EST Pad 39A: J.D. Halsell, S.L. Still, J.E. Voss, D.A. Thomas, M.L. Gernhardt, R. Crouch, G. Linteris Microgravity Science Laboratory – 1 Mission cut short because of fuel cell malfunction.

STS-84 (Atlantis) MAY 15, 1997 04:07:48 EDT Pad 39A: C.J. Precourt, E.M. Collins, C.M. Foale (up), C.I. Noriega, E.T. Lu, J.-F. Clervoy & E. Kondakova, J.M. Lineger (down) 6th Mir Docking & Spacehab module

STS-94 (Columbia) JUL 1, 1997 14:02:02 EDT Pad 39A: J.D. Halsell, S.L. Still, J.E. Voss, D.A. Thomas, M.L. Gernhardt, R. Crouch, G. Linteris Microgravity Science Laboratory – 1 This is the re-fly of Mission 83.

STS-85 (Discovery) AUG 7, 1997 10:41:00 EDT Pad 39A: Brown, Ashby, Davis, Curbeam, Robinson, Tryggvason CRISTA-SPAS – 2

STS-86 (Atlantis) SEP 25, 1997 22:34:19 EDT Pad 39A: J.D. Wetherbee, M.J. Bloomfield, V.G. Titov, S.E. Parazynski, J.-L.J.M. Chretien, W.B. Lawrence, D.A. Wolf (up), C.M. Foale (down) 7th Mir Docking & Spacehab module

STS-87 (Columbia) NOV 19, 1997 14:46:00 EST Pad 39B: K.R. Kregel, S.W. Lindsey, W.E. Scott, K. Chawla, T. Doi Solar Physics, Microgravity experiments. Failure on deployment of SPARTAN satellite on Nov 21, 1997 at 4:04 pm EST.

STS-89 (Endeavour) JAN 22, 1998 21:48:15 EST Pad 39A: Wilcutt, Edwards, Dunbar, Anderson, Reilly, Sharipov, Thomas (up), Wolf (down) 8th Mir Docking mission.

STS-90 (Columbia) APR 17, 1998 14:19 EDT Pad 39-B: R.A. Searfoss, S.D. Altman, R.M. Linnehan, D. Rhys Williams, K.P. Hire, J.C. Buckey, J.A. Pawelczyk Neurolab medical experiments.

STS-91 (Discovery) MAY 28, 1998 18:06:24 EDT Pad 39-A: C.J. Precourt, D.L. Pudwill Gorie, W.B. Lawrence, F.R. Chang-Diaz , J.L. Kavandi, V. V. Ryumin, A.S.W. Thomas (up) 9th Mir Docking mission.

STS-95 (Discovery) OCT 29, 1998 14:20:19 EST Pad 39-B: C.L. Brown, S.W. Lindsey, S.E. Parazynski, S.K. Robinson, P. Duque, C. Mukai, J.H. Glenn Spartan 201 Free Flyer, Spacehab, Medical experiments

STS-88 (Endeavour) DEC 4, 1998 3:35 EST Pad 39-A: R.D.Cabana, F.W.Sturckow, N.J.Currie, J.L.Ross, J.H.Newman, S.K.Krikalev 1st Flight of components for International Space Station.

STS-96 (Discovery) MAY 27, 1999 6:49 EDT Pad 39-B: K.V. Rominger, R.D. Husband, E. Ochoa, T.E. Jernigan, D.T. Barry, J. Payette, Y. Malenchenko Logistics and resupply to International Space Station.

STS-93 (Columbia) JUL 23, 1999 12:31 am EDT Pad 39-B: E.M.Collins, J.S.Ashby, S.A.Hawley, C.G. Coleman, M. Tognini Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (Chandra). 1st Female Commander.

STS-103 (Discovery) DEC 19, 1999 19:50:00 EST Pad 39-B: Brown, Kelly, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld, Nicollier, Clervoy. 3rd Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (HST-3)

STS-99 (Endeavour) FEB 11, 2000 12:43 pm EST Pad 39-A: K.R. Kregel, D.L. Pudwill Gorie, J.L. Kavandi, J.E. Voss, M. Mohri, G.P.J. Thiele. Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to perform high-resolution digital topographic mapping of the Earth.

STS-101 (Atlantis) MAY 19, 2000 6:11 am EDT Pad 39-B: J.D. Halsell, S.J. Horowitz, M.E. Weber, J. N. Williams, J.S. Voss, S.J. Helms, Y.V. Usachev 3rd International Space Station Flight

STS-106 (Atlantis) SEP 8, 2000 8:45:47 am EDT Pad 39-A: Wilcutt, Altman, Lu, Malenchenko, Morukov, Mastracchio, Burbank Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-92 (Discovery) OCT 11, 2000 7:17 pm EDT Pad 39-A: B. Duffy, P.A. Melroy, K. Wakata, L. Chiao, P.J.K. Wisoff, M.E. Lopez-Alegria, W.S. McArthur Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-97 (Endeavour) NOV 30, 2000 10:06 pm EST Pad 39-B: B. Jett, M. Bloomfield, J. Tanner, C. Noriega, M. Garneau Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-98 (Atlantis) FEB 7, 2001 6:13 pm EST Pad 39-A: K. Cockrell, M. Polansky, R. Curbeam, T. Jones, M. Ivins Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-102 (Discovery) MAR 8, 2001 6:42:09:059 am EST Pad 39-B: J. Wetherbee, J. Kelly, A. Thomas, P. Richards J. Voss, S. Helms and Y. Usachev to go up to Alpha to replace W. Shepherd, Y. Gidzenko, and S. Krikalev. Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-100 (Endeavour) APR 19, 2001 2:40:42 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Rominger, Ashby, Hadfield, Parazynski, Phillips, Guidoni, Lonchakov 9th ISS Flight

STS-104 (Atlantis) JUL 12, 2001 5:03:59 am EDT Pad 39-B: Lindsey, Hobaugh, Kavandi, Gernhardt, Reilly 10th ISS Flight

STS-105 (Discovery) AUG 10, 2001 5:10:14 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Horowitz, Struckow, Barry, Forrester; (up) Culbertson, Dezhurov, Turin (down) Voss, Helms, Usachev 11th ISS Flight

STS-108 (Endeavour) DEC 05, 2001 5:19 pm EST Pad 39-B: Gorie, Kelly, Godwin, Tani; (up) Onufrienko, Bursch, Walz; (down) Culbertson, Dezhurov, Turin 12th ISS Flight

STS-109 (Columbia) MAR 1, 2002 6:22:02 am EST Pad 39-A: Altman, Carey, Grunsfeld, Currie, Newman, Linnehan, Massimino Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3B

STS-110 (Atlantis) APR 8, 2002 4:44:19 pm EDT Pad 39-B: Bloomfield, Frick, Ross, Smith, Ochoa, Morin, Walheim 13th ISS Flight

STS-111 (Endeavour) JUN 5, 2002 5:22:49 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Cockrell, Lockhart, Chang-Diaz, Perrin; Korzin, Whitson, Treschev (up); Onufrienko, Bursch, Walz (down) 14th ISS Flight

STS-112 (Atlantis) OCT 7, 2002 3:45:51.074 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Ashby, Melroy, Wolf, Sellers, Magnus, Yurchikhin 15th ISS flight

STS-113 (Endeavour) NOV 24, 2002 7:49:47 pm EST Pad 39B: Wetherbee, Lockhart, Lopez-Alegria, Herrington; (up) Bowersox, Budarin, Pettit; (down) Korzun, Whitson, Treschev 16th ISS flight

STS-107 (Columbia) JAN 16, 2003 10:39 am EST Pad 39-B: Husband, McCool, Anderson, Chawla, Brown, Clark, Ramon Research Mission, Freestar.
Shuttle disintegrated over Texas with communication lost Feb 1, 2003 9:00 am EST, approximately 16 minutes before scheduled landing. 1st sign of difficulty 8:52 am EST over Eastern California/Western Nevada.

STS-114 (Discovery) JUL 26, 2005 10:39 am EDT Pad 39-B: E. Collins, J. Kelly, W. Lawrence, S. Robinson, A. Thomas, C. Camarda and S. Noguchi. Return to Space Mission and International Space Station resupply.

STS-121 (Discovery) JUL 4, 2006 2:37:55 pm EDT Pad 39-B: S. Lindsey, M. Kelly, M. Fossum, L. Nowak, S. Wilson, P. Sellers, T. Reiter (up). Return to Space Mission and International Space Station resupply.

STS-115 (Atlantis) SEP 9, 2006 11:15 am EDT Pad 39-B: B. Jett, C. Ferguson, J. Tanner, D. Burbank, S. MacLean, H. Stefanyshyn-Piper. International Space Station construction and resupply.

STS-116 (Discovery) DEC 9, 2006 8:47 pm EST Pad 39-B: M. Polansky, W. Oefelein, R. Curbeam, J. Higginbotham, N. Patrick, C. Fuglesang.
Twentieth space station flight (12A.1), P5 Truss, SPACEHAB

STS-117 (Atlantis) JUN 8, 2007 7:38 pm EDT Pad 39-B: F. Sturckow, L. Archambault, J. Reilly II, P. Forrester, S. Swanson, J. Olivas.
21st space station flight(13A), S3/S4 Truss. Did repair work on Shuttle during one of the construction spacewalks.

STS-118 (Endeavor) AUG 8, 2007 6:36 pm EDT Pad 39-A: S. Kelly, C. Hobaugh, R. Mastracchio, D. Williams, B. Morgan, T. Caldwell, B. Drew. 22nd space station flight: third starboard truss segment.

STS-120 (Discovery) OCT 23, 2007 11:38 am EDT Pad 39-A: P.A. Melroy, G.D. Zamka, S.E. Parazynski, D.H. Wheelock, S.D. Wilson, P.A. Nespoli, D.M. Tani, C.C. Anderson.
23nd space station flight: Italian-built multi-port module. Tani replaces Anderson aboard Space Station.

STS-122 (Atlantis) FEB 7, 2008 2:45 pm EST Pad 39-A: S.N. Frick, A.G. Poindexter, R.J. Walheim, S.G. Love, L.D. Melvin, H.Schlegel, D.M. Tani, L. Eyharts.
24th space station flight: ESA’s Columbus Laboratory. Eyharts replaces Tani aboard Space Station.

STS-123 (Endeavor) MAR 11, 2008 2:28 am EDT Pad 39-A: D.L. Gorie, G.H. Johnson, R.M. Linnehan, R.L. Behnken, M.J. Foreman, T. Doi, L. Eyharts (down), G.E. Reisman (up)

25th space station flight: Japanese Kibo Logistics Module and Canadian Dextre robotics system

STS-124 (Discovery) MAY 31, 2008 5: 32 pm EDT Pad 39-A: M.E. Kelly, K.T. Ham, K.L. Nyberg, R,J. Garan Jr., M. E. Fossum, A. Hoshide, G.E. Chamitoff(up), G.E. Reisman(down).
26th space station flight: Kibo Japanese Experiment Module – Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM-RMS). Chamitoff replaces Reisman aboard Space Station.

STS-126 (Endeavor) NOV 14, 2008 7:55 pm EST Pad 39-A: C.J. Ferguson, E.A. Boe, S.G. Bowen, R.S. Kimbrough, H.M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, D.R. Pettit, S.H. Magnus (up), G.E. Chamitoff(down).
27th station flight (ULF2), Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM)

STS-119 (Discovery) MAR 15, 2009 7:43 pm EDT Pad 39-A: L. Archambault, T. Antonelli, J. Acaba, J. Phillips, S. Swanson, R. Arnold. K. Wakata (up), S.H. Magnus (down)
28th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Discovery also will carry the S6 truss segment to the orbital outpost

STS-125 (Atlantis) MAY 11, 2009 2:01 pm EDT Pad 39-A: S.D. Altman, G.C. Johnson, J.M. Grunsfeld, A.J. Feustel, M.T. Good, K.M. McArthur.
Final Hubble servicing mission.

STS-127 (Endeavor) JULY 15, 2009 6:03 pm EDT Pad 39A: M.L. Polansky, G.G. Hurley, D.A. Wolf, C.J.Cassidy, T.H. Marshburn, , J. Payette, T.L. Kopra (up), K Wakata (down).
29th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Japanese Kibo Laboratory complex.

STS-128 (Discovery) AUG 29, 2009 11:59 pm EDT Pad 39A: R. Sturckow, K. Ford, P. Forrester, J. Hernandez, D. Olivas, C. Fuglesang, N. Stott (up), T.L. Kopra (down)
30th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Transition from construction to scientific research.

Space Flight Locations Data

LAUNCH & LANDING (& CONTROL & POLITICS) PLACES: (with thanks to Mark
(Pottenger)

    CAPE CANAVERAL, FLORIDA (city of CC)
    28 N 24   80 W 36
    Tip of Cape on coast is about 28 N 27' 30" & 80 W 31' 30" on map

    EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA
    34 N 54  117 W 52
    Rogers Lake:  approx. 34 N 49 to 35 N 0 by 117 W 47 to 117 W 55

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLORIDA
    Coordinates read from USGS topographic maps by Mark Pottenger.
    Seconds are uncertain because of size of launch complexes.
    Note: Cape Canaveral was originally a missile testing base in the
    50's. Some of the early complexes were erected to launch particular
    missile types (in many cases, the winged missiles that dominated
    US missile strategy before 1956), and then were torn down.
    Complex  5:   28 N 26' 21"  80 W 34' 25"  (from map)
    Complex  6:   28 N 26' 26"  80 W 34' 22"  (from map)
    Complex 11:   28 N 28' 30"  80 W 32' 23"  (from map)
    Complex 12:   28 N 28' 50"  80 W 32' 32"  (from map)
    Complex 13:   28 N 29'  9"  80 W 32' 41"  (from map)
    Complex 14:   28 N 29' 27"  80 W 32' 49"  (from map)
    Complex 15:   28 N 29' 46"  80 W 32' 58"  (from map)
    Complex 16:   28 N 30'  5"  80 W 33'  7"  (from map)
    Complex 17:   28 N 26' 46"  80 W 33' 57"  (from map)
    Complex 18:   28 N 26' 56"  80 W 33' 43"  (from map)
    Complex 19:   28 N 30' 23"  80 W 33' 16"  (from map)
    Complex 20:   28 N 30' 42"  80 W 33' 24"  (from map)
    Complex 25:   28 N 25' 55"  80 W 34' 28"  (from map)
    Complex 26:   28 N 26' 35"  80 W 34' 18"  (from map)
    Complex 29:   28 N 25' 48"  80 W 34' 32"  (from map)
    Complex 30:   28 N 26' 17"  80 W 34' 50"  (from map)
    Complex 31:   28 N 27'  4"  80 W 33' 19"  (from map)
    Complex 32:   28 N 27' 11"  80 W 33' 16"  (from map)
    Complex 34:   28 N 31' 17"  80 W 33' 41"  (from map)
    Complex 36A:  28 N 28' 17"  80 W 32' 17"  (from map)
    Complex 36B:  28 N 28'  5"  80 W 32' 28"  (from map)
    Complex 37:   28 N 31' 49"  80 W 34'  3"  (from map)
    Complex 39A:  28 N 36' 28"  80 W 36' 15"  (from map)
    Complex 39B:  28 N 37' 38"  80 W 37' 17"  (from map)
    Complex 40:   28 N 33' 43"  80 W 34' 38"  (from map)
    Complex 41:   28 N 35'  0"  80 W 35'  0"  (from map)

    LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER (S.E. of Houston, TX)
    29 N 34   95 W 05  (Rand McNally International Atlas)

    TYURATAM, KAZAKHSTAN, USSR
    45 N 38   63 E 16  (London Times Atlas)

LUNAR LANDING SITES:
Sea of Tranquility:  2 N 40  34 E  
Sea of Tranquility:  0 N 45  23 E 37
Central Bay:         0 N 25   1 W 20
Ocean of Storms:     3 S 30  36 W 25
Ocean of Storms:     1 N 40  41 W 40

Political Elections

©2006 J. Lee Lehman

As we gear up for the November elections, let’s not forget two things. First, when astrologers use a birth chart for the country, it needs a time attached: and there lies the rub. If there is one thing that everybody in the astrological community likes to argue over, it’s the USA chart.


While July 4th is the day everyone celebrates (maybe – but isn’t everybody celebrating today, the 3rd, as well?), that’s now — on July 4, 1776, hardly anybody outside the Continental Congress knew that anything had “happened.” this is why some astrologers have even argued for different dates, like July 2nd, or even years later, when the Articles of Confederation were signed – or even the Constitution ratified.

Without a proper chart – and this includes time, and there, coming up with a time for the ratification or signing of the Declaration is not a straightforward process – annual predictions are difficult at best.

What all this boils down to is that this stuff can be incredibly fascinating, compelling and addictive: but probably not very predictive, because there’s too much of a subjective element. This rather reminds me of the problem I have seen with predicting presidential elections. Since I started paying attention to this in 1980, I have noticed the strongest correlation in prediction being that between who is predicted as the winner, and who that astrologer intends to vote for. In other words, predictions are simply wishful thinking! Far too few astrologers are either able or willing to develop truly objective methods that they can use.

So yes: I can Bush-bash with the best of them, and I sincerely hope that he and his cronies get their come-uppance sooner, rather than later. I fervently hope that every day, more Americans realize what an embarrassment he is. But I am reluctant to “read the signs” that way, because I so want it to be true!

The Sibly Chart (Sag Rising) has probably become the new consensus chart over the Gemini Rising chart since Ronald Reagan’s presidency. It’s interesting. What Rudhyar doesn’t tell anyone about the Sibly chart is what it actually is. If you actually go back to Sibly’s work, he derived the date of July 4, 1776 by working with primary directions to get the “perfection” of the approaching Mars-Saturn opposition from the Aries Ingress of 1776. This rather extensive discussion was then illustrated with the woodcut that everybody now assumes was a timed chart.

This idea presents difficulties. The July 4th date was not being bruted about the Colonies as a particularly significant date. The astrologers of the period (who most likely would have been working the dockyards doing “ships at sea” horaries and electing times for sea voyages) would most likely not have been rushing around trying to find a member of the Continental Congress to get a time!

Another factor which I have not seen discussed was that Sibly, like his earlier colleagues, was a notorious (by modern standards) rectifier. Lilly’s natal section of Christian Astrology, like other typical works of the period, gives an extensive section on how to rectify a chart long before he discusses interpreting it. In his Nativities, Gadbury mentions having taken the time of a relative’s birth with a pocket watch – as if this were a truly unusual occurrence, which of course it was!

All this is by way of saying that Sibly’s discussion has all the earmarks of a post hoc derivation, mostly likely because he wanted to illustrate primaries in a mundane example, and his method “worked out” to July 4th. It is at least as likely that the given time was Sibly’s “take” (i.e., rectification) as anything else – especially since the text makes no mention whatsoever of the chart, nor is the chart itself discussed.