On Ambulance Chasing

Recently, I posted a blog entry delineation of the shooting of Gabrielle Giffords and others in Tucson, AZ, focusing on the angle that the shooting could be used specifically as a decumbiture for Giffords, as the target of the shooting. I had posted the link up on my Facebook page, and one of my friends, who is not an astrologer, but is in the medical profession, had some questions and concerns about the propriety of the post. The purpose of this piece is to consider her concerns, and to discuss the issue of the ambulance chasing that virtually all astrologers and students of astrology do.


First: this was my immediate response to my friend:

I’m sure you’ll find this case discussed ad nauseum on astrology boards. Astrologers simply cannot stop being ambulance chasers. But I do understand your comment. However, news articles discussing the removal of the skull and the rest of it hardly set up a climate for confidential medical data. This is the current reality of being a celebrity.

But you raise an interesting point. Astrologers are often very nervous about medical astrology, because of any appearance of practicing medicine without a license. Having just completed my book on medical astrology, one thing that is very clear to me: astrology has never been considered a form of medicine. Astrology at most had an adjunct role in timing a disease or treatment, or in helping to choose an herbal remedy.

As for the ethical concerns, I’m not sure I would have chosen to present this chart had the prognosis shown as death. A couple of months ago, when the New Zealand mining accident occurred, I ran the chart for the explosion, and concluded the miners were dead. I was sick, and watched the news with increasing alarm until the announcement was made. I couldn’t bring myself to publish the chart.

Do we go over the line when we discuss a case which has not played out in its entirety? I have been really thinking about this question since I wrote this.

Health practitioners have always valued confidentiality – for all the right reasons. But let’s not kid ourselves: this has never been absolute. Medical records can be subpoenaed in court – and this includes psychiatric records in divorce cases. While at first this might seem like a really good idea relating to custody, we also have to acknowledge that, these days, psychiatrists are often little more than purveyors of prescriptions, who often spend little time with their patients. Thus, such information can be inflammatory, without necessarily being revealing.

Let’s also not kid ourselves about the effects of Obamacare. In 2011, physicians are being mandated to move their record-keeping to what will become a massive medical database. How much privacy will there be then?

With the massive decrease in the cost of permanent storage, privacy is about to disappear, except between our ears. Recently, I had called up a financial company to make a change in my account. In order to verify that I was who I said I was, they asked me to verify an address that I lived at in 1988 – long before the popularity of the Internet, and in the era when I had personally assumed would probably never be computerized. The next time I logged in to the real property records in my county, I discovered that they now have the records computerized back into the 19th century – the last I knew, it was 1980!

Once a year, it seems, the American Federation of Astrologers goofs up and sends a press release to their members in which they forget to hide everybody’s e-mail address. There is simply no telling about inadvertent leaks and deliberate hacking.

But if privacy is a rapidly disappearing concept, should we as astrologers contribute to it? I suppose that depends on your definitions. In my blog, I revealed no confidential information about Giffords’ condition. In fact, the details about her case were pretty sketchy at the time, and I certainly had no access to anything that anyone else in typing distance of Google didn’t also possess.

So: is a prediction confidential? Giffords is not a client, so again, I have no special access to information through private sources. And I don’t even have her birthchart.

So: is a prediction confidential? What I did in the prediction was theoretically what any astrologer of a medical bent, looking at the shooting time as a decumbiture could have done. In that sense, I have to say, I don’t think it’s confidential.

So: is a public prediction unethical?That’s really the question. As I indicated in my answer to my friend, I do think we need to exercise judgment about what we choose to say publicly about public events. In the past, astrologers have been able to hide behind the fig-leaf that, since our status in much of the community at large is that we are automatic charlatans, that this gives us carte blanche to say whatever we want, because no one will take us seriously anyway.

In a blog-ified world, what we say can end up in the strangest places. Whatever else is going on, I would hope that we don’t add to people’s distress. As I was predicting that Giffords would recover, that prediction was not likely to upset anyone on the right side of sanity. I am thinking of how distressed Giffords’ husband was when he heard the initial incorrect report of her death on the shooting. On a human level, that is not what any of us want to create.

So my conclusion is: think before you write. And always remember that what used to be ephemeral may end up haunting you fifty years later. But within the parameters of conscious consideration, we have to be able to ply our craft.

Education and Professionalism

In the latest issue of the ISAR Journal, Vol. 36, Number 2, I published an article entitled “A lot has happened while you have been asleep… Education and Professionalism in the Age of Pluto in Capricorn.”

I have to admit that I don’t like my conclusions in this article, but they have profound implications for the future of astrology as a whole.

Here’s an excerpt:


In the latest issue of the ISAR Journal, Vol. 36, Number 2, I published an article entitled “A lot has happened while you have been asleep… Education and Professionalism in the Age of Pluto in Capricorn.”

I have to admit that I don’t like my conclusions in this article, but they have profound implications for the future of astrology as a whole.

Here’s an excerpt:

“Professionalism” these days means more than just taking money occasionally to do a chart

So my point is this: while we have been having a wonderful time in astrology since the 1970’s and 1980’s, the society we live in has moved on from the model of education and professionalism that was still tenable in the 1970’s: a loose, informal process where educational quality is based on the reputation of the teacher or organization that gives the initials, and where professional skills development in areas such as counseling resembled the peer counseling training common at a rape crisis center of that era.

Please understand me: I am not criticizing the structures that developed; they were a necessary first step. But “professionalism” these days means more than just taking money occasionally to do a chart. The use of the word outside this very technical meaning is rapidly disappearing.

This leaves us with a dilemma in astrology: what do we want to be? If we want to be professionals, then the time is coming soon when we must embrace the professional education/licensing/certification model. With Pluto in Capricorn, do you really expect there will be much choice?

If we as a community decide we don’t want that – fine, but we will have to drop the word “professional” from our vocabulary.

Is current astrology training for a craft or a profession?

One alternative we could adopt is to restructure ourselves as a craft. Independent weavers, table makers, painters, and sculptors may have apprenticeship programs and guild-like structures: but an academic or vocational degree isn’t the usual prerequisite. In many respects, our current astrological institutions resemble this model far more closely than the professional model anyway. This may not have the status – but it would sustain us in our current community structure.

And of course, anyone can still learn astrology either self-taught or in small groups. The question is not astrology as hobby – but what happens when you take money for doing it.

This whole societal compulsion toward credentialing is nothing new: the Chinese developed this concept centuries ago. I think that having a mobile society where people don’t know each other tends to drive an interest in credentials: because, otherwise, how do you know if you’re getting the service you are hiring? But I think there is also a tremendous case to be made for this system collectively passing the buck. If a licensed professional does something according to the rules of his or her profession, then nobody can complain about it.

We can’t afford the ostrich position much longer

While I may oppose these trends, I don’t think that, as a community, we can afford the ostrich position much longer. It has already become apparent that there is bipartisan support for legislation against diploma mills in Congress: and I see no evidence that Democrats are any less interested in this than Republicans. If we allow ourselves only the option of reacting to legislation, rather than already moving on the issue, we are all too likely to find that we cannot create the institutions in time to avoid prosecution – because, make no mistake: until we wake up as a community and actually fight against the discrimination we face as astrologers, all of us are tempting targets. As it is, moving voluntarily, it will probably take about five years to get the infrastructure in place, and another ten years or so to get the system fully operational. By the way – this option does not mean that everybody currently in astrology would suddenly have to enroll in either Kepler College or Avalon School of Astrology (the two governmentally recognized schools at this time). There would probably be one very large grandfathering round – because everybody in the community would have to join – even the folks like me who sat out the NCGR exams and CAP. What all of us in the field would have to accept, though, is a formalized system of continuing education. But that could run just as well through conferences, courses at Avalon and Kepler or any other schools that become state authorized.

People expect credentials in all but very new fields.

For years when I lived in Florida, I had a business license entitled “Non-psychological consultant” – a title I adored, being a horary astrologer. But this looseness about consulting is slowly disappearing as a business model. People expect credentials in all but very new fields – and there, it’s just that the clock is ticking early in the developmental process. We are in one of the earth’s oldest fields. And in a time where the religious right has lost some political muscle, they just might enjoy the role of the bully with us.

Another way to look at it is this: if you examine the outer planet cycles for the next few years, can you honestly say this trend will falter? The fact is: as a nation, we are too populous. The more people, the more everyone gets sorted into bins, because bins are easier to handle than individuals. Things that were handled casually become institutionalized. Take real estate agents. Not too many years ago, if you wanted to be a real estate agent, you had to pass a test. Granted, those tests generated a lot of anxiety, because of the math. But now in North Carolina, you have to take a series of courses at a college or community college, and then you can take the test. And then once you have your broker’s license (brokers replaced agents here a few years back), then you have to take more courses as part of continuing education. And as the educational requirements increased, so did the number of vocational activities that required that educational credential. Now, in order to be a property manager, you have to be a broker. Before, you just had to know what you were doing.

Mercury Stations 1900 – 2015

Here is a list of the station points for the planet Mercury by date in the Gregorian (NS) calendar system. Zodiacal position by longitude and time of day of the station point in the US Eastern Time Zone is shown for one-hundred-fifty years: ad 1900 to 2050. The calculations were performed by the Solar Fire Gold (version 7) computer program using the Swiss Ephemeris.


Here is a list of the station points for the planet Mercury by date in the Gregorian (NS) calendar system. Zodiacal position by longitude and time of day of the station point in the US Eastern Time Zone is shown for one-hundred-fifty years: ad 1900 to 2050. The calculations were performed by the Solar Fire Gold (version 7) computer program using the Swiss Ephemeris.

Mercury Stations 1900-2050

Mar 15 1900 NS Mer R 09°Ar09′ 08:21:59 am EST

Apr 07 1900 NS Mer D 26°Pi31′ 01:51:02 pm EST

Jul 18 1900 NS Mer R 15°Le15′ 07:53:38 am EST

Aug 11 1900 NS Mer D 03°Le48′ 10:10:25 am EST

Nov 09 1900 NS Mer R 06°Sg17′ 06:36:39 pm EST

Nov 29 1900 NS Mer D 20°Sc07′ 04:33:46 pm EST

Feb 26 1901 Mer R 22°Pi05′ 07:18:12 am EST

Mar 20 1901 Mer D 08°Pi07′ 09:30:29 pm EST

Jun 29 1901 Mer R 25°Cn59′ 09:52:30 pm EST

Jul 24 1901 Mer D 15°Cn56′ 03:16:54 am EST

Oct 24 1901 Mer R 20°Sc24′ 07:09:48 am EST

Nov 13 1901 Mer D 04°Sc26′ 02:42:14 pm EST

Feb 09 1902 Mer R 05°Pi28′ 05:18:09 pm EST

Mar 03 1902 Mer D 20°Aq29′ 01:50:34 pm EST

Jun 10 1902 Mer R 06°Cn08′ 11:41:39 pm EST

Jul 05 1902 Mer D 27°Ge11′ 01:25:35 am EST

Oct 07 1902 Mer R 04°Sc22′ 02:59:58 pm EST

Oct 28 1902 Mer D 18°Li43′ 01:05:57 pm EST

Jan 24 1903 Mer R 19°Aq09′ 10:15:02 am EST

Feb 14 1903 Mer D 03°Aq29′ 01:20:08 pm EST

May 22 1903 Mer R 16°Ge05′ 02:39:24 pm EST

Jun 15 1903 Mer D 07°Ge32′ 12:24:19 pm EST

Sep 20 1903 Mer R 18°Li03′ 05:21:31 pm EST

Oct 12 1903 Mer D 02°Li53′ 09:39:49 am EST

Jan 08 1904 Mer R 03°Aq04′ 06:55:46 am EST

Jan 28 1904 Mer D 17°Cp00′ 06:47:56 pm EST

May 02 1904 Mer R 26°Ta24′ 04:33:55 am EST

May 26 1904 Mer D 17°Ta22′ 00:56:58 am EST

Sep 02 1904 Mer R 01°Li20′ 01:36:42 pm EST

Sep 25 1904 Mer D 16°Vi53′ 01:45:58 am EST

Dec 22 1904 Mer R 17°Cp07′ 04:49:58 am EST

Jan 11 1905 Mer D 00°Cp52′ 05:25:25 am EST

Apr 13 1905 Mer R 07°Ta27′ 06:34:54 am EST

May 07 1905 Mer D 27°Ar12′ 00:35:00 am EST

Aug 16 1905 Mer R 14°Vi03′ 03:22:03 am EST

Sep 08 1905 Mer D 00°Vi34′ 10:01:24 am EST

Dec 06 1905 Mer R 01°Cp17′ 01:57:28 am EST

Dec 25 1905 Mer D 14°Sg58′ 08:34:45 pm EST

Mar 26 1906 Mer R 19°Ar19′ 03:03:20 am EST

Apr 18 1906 Mer D 07°Ar33′ 02:31:59 pm EST

Jul 29 1906 Mer R 26°Le03′ 09:37:38 am EST

Aug 22 1906 Mer D 13°Le48′ 06:15:50 am EST

Nov 19 1906 Mer R 15°Sg28′ 08:40:07 pm EST

Dec 09 1906 Mer D 29°Sc13′ 03:28:27 pm EST

Mar 08 1907 Mer R 01°Ar55′ 05:19:06 pm EST

Mar 31 1907 Mer D 18°Pi40′ 04:51:04 pm EST

Jul 11 1907 Mer R 07°Le14′ 06:16:54 am EST

Aug 04 1907 Mer D 26°Cn24′ 10:18:16 am EST

Nov 03 1907 Mer R 29°Sc37′ 11:39:36 am EST

Nov 23 1907 Mer D 13°Sc32′ 12:55:59 pm EST

Feb 19 1908 Mer R 15°Pi03′ 09:21:15 pm EST

Mar 13 1908 Mer D 00°Pi37′ 04:31:57 am EST

Jun 21 1908 Mer R 17°Cn41′ 02:45:59 pm EST

Jul 15 1908 Mer D 08°Cn09′ 07:22:06 pm EST

Oct 16 1908 Mer R 13°Sc42′ 10:10:01 pm EST

Nov 06 1908 Mer D 27°Li51′ 11:31:45 am EST

Feb 02 1909 Mer R 28°Aq35′ 10:50:44 am EST

Feb 23 1909 Mer D 13°Aq17′ 11:53:51 pm EST

Jun 02 1909 Mer R 27°Ge41′ 11:02:44 am EST

Jun 26 1909 Mer D 19°Ge00′ 11:24:41 am EST

Sep 30 1909 Mer R 27°Li34′ 03:34:30 am EST

Oct 21 1909 Mer D 12°Li06′ 09:21:09 am EST

Jan 17 1910 Mer R 12°Aq23′ 05:52:41 am EST

Feb 07 1910 Mer D 26°Cp31′ 01:52:09 am EST

May 14 1910 Mer R 07°Ge44′ 00:30:09 am EST

Jun 06 1910 Mer D 29°Ta05′ 08:49:46 pm EST

Sep 13 1910 Mer R 11°Li06′ 03:36:31 am EST

Oct 05 1910 Mer D 26°Vi13′ 04:15:40 am EST

Jan 01 1911 Mer R 26°Cp22′ 03:26:19 am EST

Jan 21 1911 Mer D 10°Cp12′ 09:43:55 am EST

Apr 24 1911 Mer R 18°Ta19′ 06:08:36 pm EST

May 18 1911 Mer D 08°Ta51′ 01:36:24 pm EST

Aug 26 1911 Mer R 24°Vi10′ 09:24:45 pm EST

Sep 18 1911 Mer D 10°Vi05′ 05:22:35 pm EST

Dec 16 1911 Mer R 10°Cp29′ 01:09:46 am EST

Jan 04 1912 Mer D 24°Sg11′ 10:32:44 pm EST

Apr 05 1912 Mer R 29°Ar44′ 03:25:52 am EST

Apr 28 1912 Mer D 18°Ar52′ 07:53:15 pm EST

Aug 08 1912 Mer R 06°Vi35′ 07:58:30 am EST

Aug 31 1912 Mer D 23°Le36′ 09:11:12 pm EST

Nov 28 1912 Mer R 24°Sg39′ 09:15:04 pm EST

Dec 18 1912 Mer D 08°Sg21′ 03:23:54 pm EST

Mar 18 1913 Mer R 11°Ar57′ 07:56:51 am EST

Apr 10 1913 Mer D 29°Pi32′ 03:04:45 pm EST

Jul 21 1913 Mer R 18°Le15′ 10:03:25 am EST

Aug 14 1913 Mer D 06°Le35′ 11:13:58 am EST

Nov 12 1913 Mer R 08°Sg50′ 02:28:26 pm EST

Dec 02 1913 Mer D 22°Sc39′ 11:25:33 am EST

Mar 01 1914 Mer R 24°Pi48′ 04:48:11 am EST

Mar 23 1914 Mer D 11°Pi00′ 09:24:11 pm EST

Jul 03 1914 Mer R 29°Cn07′ 01:58:16 am EST

Jul 27 1914 Mer D 18°Cn51′ 07:09:55 am EST

Oct 27 1914 Mer R 22°Sc58′ 03:47:05 am EST

Nov 16 1914 Mer D 06°Sc58′ 09:27:28 am EST

Feb 12 1915 Mer R 08°Pi07′ 01:23:06 pm EST

Mar 06 1915 Mer D 23°Aq15′ 12:41:28 pm EST

Jun 14 1915 Mer R 09°Cn19′ 05:38:01 am EST

Jul 08 1915 Mer D 00°Cn14′ 08:03:23 am EST

Oct 10 1915 Mer R 06°Sc58′ 12:21:52 pm EST

Oct 31 1915 Mer D 21°Li16′ 08:00:11 am EST

Jan 27 1916 Mer R 21°Aq46′ 05:28:11 am EST

Feb 17 1916 Mer D 06°Aq11′ 11:11:10 am EST

May 24 1916 Mer R 19°Ge16′ 09:33:12 pm EST

Jun 17 1916 Mer D 10°Ge43′ 08:02:12 pm EST

Sep 22 1916 Mer R 20°Li43′ 03:27:30 pm EST

Oct 14 1916 Mer D 05°Li28′ 05:00:53 am EST

Jan 10 1917 Mer R 05°Aq39′ 01:49:21 am EST

Jan 30 1917 Mer D 19°Cp38′ 03:43:30 pm EST

May 05 1917 Mer R 29°Ta29′ 10:47:17 am EST

May 29 1917 Mer D 20°Ta35′ 07:10:45 am EST

Sep 05 1917 Mer R 04°Li04′ 12:37:23 pm EST

Sep 27 1917 Mer D 19°Vi29′ 09:55:57 pm EST

Dec 24 1917 Mer R 19°Cp42′ 11:43:39 pm EST

Jan 14 1918 Mer D 03°Cp27′ 01:33:34 am EST

Apr 16 1918 Mer R 10°Ta25′ 11:28:12 am EWT

May 10 1918 Mer D 00°Ta23′ 05:46:03 am EWT

Aug 19 1918 Mer R 16°Vi53′ 04:32:27 am EWT

Sep 11 1918 Mer D 03°Vi14′ 08:30:13 am EWT

Dec 08 1918 Mer R 03°Cp50′ 09:05:29 pm EST

Dec 28 1918 Mer D 17°Sg32′ 04:10:09 pm EST

Mar 29 1919 Mer R 22°Ar10′ 04:00:54 am EST

Apr 21 1919 Mer D 10°Ar38′ 05:57:22 pm EWT

Aug 01 1919 Mer R 29°Le00′ 12:01:55 pm EWT

Aug 25 1919 Mer D 16°Le33′ 06:47:59 am EWT

Nov 22 1919 Mer R 18°Sg02′ 04:12:34 pm EST

Dec 12 1919 Mer D 01°Sg46′ 10:39:03 am EST

Mar 10 1920 Mer R 04°Ar41′ 03:50:55 pm EST

Apr 02 1920 Mer D 21°Pi39′ 05:39:15 pm EST

Jul 13 1920 Mer R 10°Le18′ 09:05:23 am EST

Aug 06 1920 Mer D 29°Cn14′ 12:36:42 pm EST

Nov 05 1920 Mer R 02°Sg12′ 07:47:16 am EST

Nov 25 1920 Mer D 16°Sc04′ 07:49:53 am EST

Feb 21 1921 Mer R 17°Pi45′ 06:12:06 pm EST

Mar 16 1921 Mer D 03°Pi28′ 03:55:07 am EST

Jun 24 1921 Mer R 20°Cn51′ 07:26:09 pm EST

Jul 19 1921 Mer D 11°Cn08′ 00:32:59 am EST

Oct 19 1921 Mer R 16°Sc17′ 07:00:20 pm EST

Nov 09 1921 Mer D 00°Sc24′ 06:17:24 am EST

Feb 05 1922 Mer R 01°Pi14′ 06:35:34 am EST

Feb 26 1922 Mer D 16°Aq01′ 10:11:50 pm EST

Jun 05 1922 Mer R 00°Cn53′ 06:37:47 pm EDT

Jun 29 1922 Mer D 22°Ge07′ 07:28:04 pm EDT

Oct 03 1922 Mer R 00°Sc11′ 01:17:12 am EST

Oct 24 1922 Mer D 14°Li39′ 04:17:46 am EST

Jan 20 1923 Mer R 14°Aq59′ 00:58:40 am EST

Feb 09 1923 Mer D 29°Cp11′ 11:19:57 pm EST

May 17 1923 Mer R 10°Ge53′ 07:30:33 am EST

Jun 10 1923 Mer D 02°Ge17′ 04:09:50 am EST

Sep 16 1923 Mer R 13°Li47′ 02:09:06 am EST

Oct 07 1923 Mer D 28°Vi47′ 11:47:18 pm EST

Jan 03 1924 Mer R 28°Cp57′ 10:14:35 pm EST

Jan 24 1924 Mer D 12°Cp48′ 06:24:00 am EST

Apr 26 1924 Mer R 21°Ta22′ 11:27:35 pm EST

May 20 1924 Mer D 12°Ta04′ 07:20:37 pm EST

Aug 28 1924 Mer R 26°Vi55′ 08:49:41 pm EST

Sep 20 1924 Mer D 12°Vi42′ 02:03:31 pm EST

Dec 17 1924 Mer R 13°Cp02′ 08:00:27 pm EST

Jan 06 1925 Mer D 26°Sg45′ 06:26:58 pm EST

Apr 08 1925 Mer R 02°Ta39′ 06:02:32 am EST

May 01 1925 Mer D 22°Ar00′ 11:14:51 pm EST

Aug 11 1925 Mer R 09°Vi27′ 08:27:30 am EST

Sep 03 1925 Mer D 26°Le17′ 07:33:36 pm EST

Dec 01 1925 Mer R 27°Sg12′ 04:29:58 pm EST

Dec 21 1925 Mer D 10°Sg54′ 10:43:36 am EST

Mar 21 1926 Mer R 14°Ar45′ 07:54:48 am EST

Apr 13 1926 Mer D 02°Ar33′ 04:35:02 pm EST

Jul 24 1926 Mer R 21°Le14′ 12:05:05 pm EST

Aug 17 1926 Mer D 09°Le22′ 11:54:17 am EST

Nov 15 1926 Mer R 11°Sg23′ 10:18:30 am EST

Dec 05 1926 Mer D 25°Sc11′ 06:22:25 am EST

Mar 04 1927 Mer R 27°Pi30′ 02:33:44 am EST

Mar 26 1927 Mer D 13°Pi54′ 09:32:58 pm EST

Jul 06 1927 Mer R 02°Le13′ 05:49:59 am EST

Jul 30 1927 Mer D 21°Cn45′ 10:41:54 am EST

Oct 30 1927 Mer R 25°Sc32′ 00:19:27 am EST

Nov 19 1927 Mer D 09°Sc30′ 04:16:35 am EST

Feb 15 1928 Mer R 10°Pi46′ 09:35:28 am EST

Mar 08 1928 Mer D 26°Aq03′ 11:43:44 am EST

Jun 16 1928 Mer R 12°Cn30′ 11:10:39 am EST

Jul 10 1928 Mer D 03°Cn16′ 02:21:14 pm EST

Oct 12 1928 Mer R 09°Sc34′ 09:31:50 am EST

Nov 02 1928 Mer D 23°Li48′ 02:51:48 am EST

Jan 29 1929 Mer R 24°Aq23′ 00:47:45 am EST

Feb 19 1929 Mer D 08°Aq53′ 09:06:47 am EST

May 28 1929 Mer R 22°Ge26′ 04:17:14 am EST

Jun 21 1929 Mer D 13°Ge52′ 03:27:59 am EST

Sep 25 1929 Mer R 23°Li21′ 01:23:36 pm EST

Oct 17 1929 Mer D 08°Li02′ 00:15:15 am EST

Jan 12 1930 Mer R 08°Aq14′ 08:45:39 pm EST

Feb 02 1930 Mer D 22°Cp16′ 12:42:50 pm EST

May 08 1930 Mer R 02°Ge35′ 05:19:01 pm EST

Jun 01 1930 Mer D 23°Ta47′ 01:37:52 pm EST

Sep 08 1930 Mer R 06°Li47′ 11:32:07 am EST

Sep 30 1930 Mer D 22°Vi05′ 05:52:57 pm EST

Dec 27 1930 Mer R 22°Cp16′ 06:38:04 pm EST

Jan 16 1931 Mer D 06°Cp03′ 09:51:50 pm EST

Apr 19 1931 Mer R 13°Ta24′ 02:51:29 pm EST

May 13 1931 Mer D 03°Ta34′ 09:32:17 am EST

Aug 22 1931 Mer R 19°Vi41′ 03:32:54 am EST

Sep 14 1931 Mer D 05°Vi53′ 04:43:49 am EST

Dec 11 1931 Mer R 06°Cp24′ 04:11:08 pm EST

Dec 31 1931 Mer D 20°Sg05′ 11:54:54 am EST

Mar 31 1932 Mer R 25°Ar02′ 05:26:38 am EST

Apr 23 1932 Mer D 13°Ar44′ 07:44:59 pm EST

Aug 03 1932 Mer R 01°Vi54′ 12:13:02 pm EST

Aug 27 1932 Mer D 19°Le15′ 05:02:17 am EST

Nov 24 1932 Mer R 20°Sg35′ 11:39:38 am EST

Dec 14 1932 Mer D 04°Sg19′ 05:54:22 am EST

Mar 13 1933 Mer R 07°Ar27′ 02:42:51 pm EST

Apr 05 1933 Mer D 24°Pi37′ 06:35:23 pm EST

Jul 16 1933 Mer R 13°Le20′ 11:37:05 am EST

Aug 09 1933 Mer D 02°Le04′ 02:32:05 pm EST

Nov 08 1933 Mer R 04°Sg46′ 03:47:34 am EST

Nov 28 1933 Mer D 18°Sc37′ 02:41:28 am EST

Feb 24 1934 Mer R 20°Pi27′ 03:16:42 pm EST

Mar 19 1934 Mer D 06°Pi19′ 03:25:16 am EST

Jun 27 1934 Mer R 24°Cn00′ 11:57:03 pm EST

Jul 22 1934 Mer D 14°Cn06′ 05:20:49 am EST

Oct 22 1934 Mer R 18°Sc52′ 03:44:05 pm EST

Nov 12 1934 Mer D 02°Sc56′ 00:58:27 am EST

Feb 08 1935 Mer R 03°Pi52′ 02:24:53 am EST

Mar 01 1935 Mer D 18°Aq47′ 08:36:50 pm EST

Jun 09 1935 Mer R 04°Cn05′ 00:06:19 am EST

Jul 03 1935 Mer D 25°Ge13′ 01:24:06 am EST

Oct 05 1935 Mer R 02°Sc49′ 10:53:34 pm EST

Oct 26 1935 Mer D 17°Li13′ 11:10:56 pm EST

Jan 22 1936 Mer R 17°Aq36′ 08:05:19 pm EST

Feb 12 1936 Mer D 01°Aq52′ 08:57:00 pm EST

May 19 1936 Mer R 14°Ge03′ 02:25:45 pm EST

Jun 12 1936 Mer D 05°Ge29′ 11:35:17 am EST

Sep 18 1936 Mer R 16°Li27′ 00:32:46 am EST

Oct 09 1936 Mer D 01°Li22′ 07:16:45 pm EST

Jan 05 1937 Mer R 01°Aq32′ 05:02:50 pm EST

Jan 26 1937 Mer D 15°Cp26′ 03:10:20 am EST

Apr 30 1937 Mer R 24°Ta26′ 05:03:11 am EST

May 24 1937 Mer D 15°Ta17′ 01:15:59 am EST

Aug 31 1937 Mer R 29°Vi41′ 08:07:43 pm EST

Sep 23 1937 Mer D 15°Vi20′ 10:37:47 am EST

Dec 20 1937 Mer R 15°Cp36′ 02:54:25 pm EST

Jan 09 1938 Mer D 29°Sg20′ 02:29:11 pm EST

Apr 11 1938 Mer R 05°Ta36′ 09:11:25 am EST

May 05 1938 Mer D 25°Ar10′ 02:53:43 am EST

Aug 14 1938 Mer R 12°Vi19′ 08:51:06 am EST

Sep 06 1938 Mer D 28°Le58′ 05:39:11 pm EST

Dec 04 1938 Mer R 29°Sg46′ 11:45:47 am EST

Dec 24 1938 Mer D 13°Sg28′ 06:09:29 am EST

Mar 24 1939 Mer R 17°Ar35′ 08:17:07 am EST

Apr 16 1939 Mer D 05°Ar37′ 06:26:06 pm EST

Jul 27 1939 Mer R 24°Le13′ 01:53:47 pm EST

Aug 20 1939 Mer D 12°Le08′ 12:07:12 pm EST

Nov 18 1939 Mer R 13°Sg57′ 06:04:32 am EST

Dec 08 1939 Mer D 27°Sc43′ 01:23:05 am EST

Mar 06 1940 Mer R 00°Ar15′ 00:31:37 am EST

Mar 28 1940 Mer D 16°Pi50′ 09:56:45 pm EST

Jul 08 1940 Mer R 05°Le18′ 09:17:07 am EST

Aug 01 1940 Mer D 24°Cn38′ 01:41:53 pm EST

Oct 31 1940 Mer R 28°Sc07′ 08:39:30 pm EST

Nov 20 1940 Mer D 12°Sc02′ 11:04:43 pm EST

Feb 17 1941 Mer R 13°Pi26′ 05:57:08 am EST

Mar 11 1941 Mer D 28°Aq52′ 10:52:18 am EST

Jun 19 1941 Mer R 15°Cn40′ 04:17:03 pm EST

Jul 13 1941 Mer D 06°Cn17′ 08:15:22 pm EST

Oct 15 1941 Mer R 12°Sc09′ 06:30:05 am EST

Nov 04 1941 Mer D 26°Li21′ 09:40:57 pm EST

Jan 31 1942 Mer R 27°Aq00′ 08:15:39 pm EST

Feb 22 1942 Mer D 11°Aq36′ 08:07:44 am EWT

May 31 1942 Mer R 25°Ge38′ 12:02:55 pm EWT

Jun 24 1942 Mer D 17°Ge01′ 11:53:58 am EWT

Sep 28 1942 Mer R 26°Li00′ 12:12:27 pm EWT

Oct 19 1942 Mer D 10°Li35′ 08:21:39 pm EWT

Jan 15 1943 Mer R 10°Aq50′ 04:46:21 pm EWT

Feb 05 1943 Mer D 24°Cp55′ 10:50:13 am EWT

May 12 1943 Mer R 05°Ge43′ 01:13:14 am EWT

Jun 04 1943 Mer D 27°Ta00′ 09:28:41 pm EWT

Sep 11 1943 Mer R 09°Li29′ 11:23:03 am EWT

Oct 3 1943 Mer D 24°Vi41′ 02:40:54 pm EWT

Dec 30 1943 Mer R 24°Cp50′ 02:32:10 pm EWT

Jan 19 1944 Mer D 08°Cp38′ 07:20:33 pm EWT

Apr 21 1944 Mer R 16°Ta24′ 08:34:04 pm EWT

May 15 1944 Mer D 06°Ta46′ 03:39:09 pm EWT

Aug 24 1944 Mer R 22°Vi28′ 04:25:22 am EWT

Sep 16 1944 Mer D 08°Vi30′ 02:46:50 am EWT

Dec 13 1944 Mer R 08°Cp57′ 12:10:46 pm EWT

Jan 02 1945 Mer D 22°Sg39′ 08:45:17 am EWT

Apr 03 1945 Mer R 27°Ar55′ 08:12:07 am EWT

Apr 26 1945 Mer D 16°Ar51′ 11:46:16 pm EWT

Aug 06 1945 Mer R 04°Vi48′ 02:10:07 pm EWT

Aug 30 1945 Mer D 21°Le58′ 05:01:45 am EWT

Nov 27 1945 Mer R 23°Sg08′ 07:00:32 am EST

Dec 17 1945 Mer D 06°Sg51′ 01:10:53 am EST

Mar 16 1946 Mer R 10°Ar13′ 01:55:06 pm EST

Apr 08 1946 Mer D 27°Pi37′ 07:37:40 pm EST

Jul 19 1946 Mer R 16°Le21′ 01:55:07 pm EST

Aug 12 1946 Mer D 04°Le52′ 04:02:51 pm EST

Nov 10 1946 Mer R 07°Sg19′ 11:43:03 pm EST

Nov 30 1946 Mer D 21°Sc09′ 09:31:56 pm EST

Feb 27 1947 Mer R 23°Pi08′ 12:35:04 pm EST

Mar 22 1947 Mer D 09°Pi11′ 03:05:32 am EST

Jul 01 1947 Mer R 27°Cn07′ 05:12:40 am EDT

Jul 25 1947 Mer D 17°Cn02′ 10:37:14 am EDT

Oct 25 1947 Mer R 21°Sc26′ 12:24:47 pm EST

Nov 14 1947 Mer D 05°Sc28′ 07:40:12 pm EST

Feb 10 1948 Mer R 06°Pi31′ 10:23:39 pm EST

Mar 03 1948 Mer D 21°Aq33′ 07:18:36 pm EST

Jun 11 1948 Mer R 07°Cn16′ 07:15:07 am EDT

Jul 05 1948 Mer D 28°Ge17′ 09:03:54 am EDT

Oct 07 1948 Mer R 05°Sc25′ 08:22:21 pm EST

Oct 28 1948 Mer D 19°Li45′ 06:05:32 pm EST

Jan 24 1949 Mer R 20°Aq12′ 03:17:05 pm EST

Feb 14 1949 Mer D 04°Aq33′ 06:44:54 pm EST

May 22 1949 Mer R 17°Ge12′ 10:16:22 pm EDT

Jun 15 1949 Mer D 08°Ge39′ 08:08:01 pm EDT

Sep 20 1949 Mer R 19°Li07′ 11:49:09 pm EDT

Oct 12 1949 Mer D 03°Li56′ 02:44:29 pm EST

Jan 08 1950 Mer R 04°Aq07′ 11:54:01 am EST

Jan 29 1950 Mer D 18°Cp03′ 00:02:35 am EST

May 03 1950 Mer R 27°Ta31′ 11:06:08 am EST

May 27 1950 Mer D 18°Ta30′ 08:28:30 am EDT

Sep 03 1950 Mer R 02°Li25′ 08:13:44 pm EDT

Sep 26 1950 Mer D 17°Vi56′ 06:58:45 am EST

Dec 23 1950 Mer R 18°Cp10′ 09:47:59 am EST

Jan 12 1951 Mer D 01°Cp55′ 10:33:53 am EST

Apr 14 1951 Mer R 08°Ta33′ 12:49:56 pm EST

May 08 1951 Mer D 28°Ar20′ 07:49:45 am EDT

Aug 17 1951 Mer R 15°Vi09′ 10:04:07 am EDT

Sep 09 1951 Mer D 01°Vi38′ 04:21:54 pm EDT

Dec 07 1951 Mer R 02°Cp19′ 06:56:42 am EST

Dec 27 1951 Mer D 16°Sg01′ 01:37:46 am EST

Mar 26 1952 Mer R 20°Ar25′ 08:54:28 am EST

Apr 18 1952 Mer D 08°Ar40′ 08:32:24 pm EST

Jul 29 1952 Mer R 27°Le09′ 04:30:51 pm EDT

Aug 22 1952 Mer D 14°Le53′ 12:54:16 pm EDT

Nov 20 1952 Mer R 16°Sg31′ 01:43:27 am EST

Dec 09 1952 Mer D 00°Sg16′ 08:28:18 pm EST

Mar 08 1953 Mer R 02°Ar59′ 10:44:23 pm EST

Mar 31 1953 Mer D 19°Pi46′ 10:35:49 pm EST

Jul 11 1953 Mer R 08°Le22′ 01:25:03 pm EDT

Aug 04 1953 Mer D 27°Cn30′ 05:20:47 pm EDT

Nov 03 1953 Mer R 00°Sg41′ 04:49:41 pm EST

Nov 23 1953 Mer D 14°Sc35′ 05:55:04 pm EST

Feb 20 1954 Mer R 16°Pi07′ 02:33:18 am EST

Mar 14 1954 Mer D 01°Pi42′ 10:06:25 am EST

Jun 22 1954 Mer R 18°Cn50′ 10:09:04 pm EDT

Jul 17 1954 Mer D 09°Cn17′ 02:50:15 am EDT

Oct 18 1954 Mer R 14°Sc45′ 03:25:19 am EST

Nov 07 1954 Mer D 28°Li54′ 04:30:18 pm EST

Feb 03 1955 Mer R 29°Aq39′ 03:54:38 pm EST

Feb 25 1955 Mer D 14°Aq21′ 05:17:03 am EST

Jun 03 1955 Mer R 28°Ge50′ 06:45:45 pm EDT

Jun 27 1955 Mer D 20°Ge09′ 07:10:36 pm EDT

Oct 01 1955 Mer R 28°Li38′ 08:58:24 am EST

Oct 22 1955 Mer D 13°Li09′ 02:22:08 pm EST

Jan 18 1956 Mer R 13°Aq26′ 10:51:39 am EST

Feb 08 1956 Mer D 27°Cp35′ 07:09:50 am EST

May 14 1956 Mer R 08°Ge52′ 08:12:10 am EDT

Jun 07 1956 Mer D 00°Ge14′ 04:33:45 am EDT

Sep 13 1956 Mer R 12°Li11′ 10:07:37 am EDT

Oct 05 1956 Mer D 27°Vi16′ 10:20:33 am EDT

Jan 01 1957 Mer R 27°Cp25′ 08:22:30 am EST

Jan 21 1957 Mer D 11°Cp15′ 02:55:43 pm EST

Apr 25 1957 Mer R 19°Ta26′ 00:31:31 am EST

May 18 1957 Mer D 09°Ta59′ 09:04:09 pm EDT

Aug 27 1957 Mer R 25°Vi15′ 04:04:00 am EDT

Sep 18 1957 Mer D 11°Vi09′ 11:36:52 pm EDT

Dec 16 1957 Mer R 11°Cp31′ 06:05:15 am EST

Jan 05 1958 Mer D 25°Sg14′ 03:38:29 am EST

Apr 06 1958 Mer R 00°Ta50′ 09:24:18 am EST

Apr 30 1958 Mer D 19°Ar59′ 02:56:58 am EDT

Aug 09 1958 Mer R 07°Vi41′ 02:46:56 pm EDT

Sep 02 1958 Mer D 24°Le40′ 03:42:10 am EDT

Nov 30 1958 Mer R 25°Sg42′ 02:16:09 am EST

Dec 19 1958 Mer D 09°Sg24′ 08:26:44 pm EST

Mar 19 1959 Mer R 13°Ar01′ 01:34:01 pm EST

Apr 11 1959 Mer D 00°Ar38′ 08:52:54 pm EST

Jul 22 1959 Mer R 19°Le22′ 05:02:18 pm EDT

Aug 15 1959 Mer D 07°Le40′ 06:05:01 pm EDT

Nov 13 1959 Mer R 09°Sg53′ 07:36:32 pm EST

Dec 03 1959 Mer D 23°Sc41′ 04:25:14 pm EST

Mar 01 1960 Mer R 25°Pi52′ 10:09:55 am EST

Mar 24 1960 Mer D 12°Pi05′ 03:04:38 am EST

Jul 03 1960 Mer R 00°Le14′ 09:15:06 am EDT

Jul 27 1960 Mer D 19°Cn57′ 02:24:26 pm EDT

Oct 27 1960 Mer R 24°Sc01′ 10:02:18 am EDT

Nov 16 1960 Mer D 08°Sc00′ 02:26:37 pm EST

Feb 12 1961 Mer R 09°Pi10′ 06:32:27 pm EST

Mar 06 1961 Mer D 24°Aq20′ 06:15:36 pm EST

Jun 14 1961 Mer R 10°Cn27′ 01:06:03 pm EDT

Jul 08 1961 Mer D 01°Cn20′ 03:36:01 pm EDT

Oct 10 1961 Mer R 08°Sc01′ 06:41:42 pm EDT

Oct 31 1961 Mer D 22°Li18′ 01:00:48 pm EST

Jan 27 1962 Mer R 22°Aq49′ 10:30:38 am EST

Feb 17 1962 Mer D 07°Aq14′ 04:35:17 pm EST

May 26 1962 Mer R 20°Ge23′ 05:09:02 am EDT

Jun 19 1962 Mer D 11°Ge50′ 03:45:28 am EDT

Sep 23 1962 Mer R 21°Li46′ 09:52:52 pm EDT

Oct 15 1962 Mer D 06°Li30′ 11:04:17 am EDT

Jan 11 1963 Mer R 06°Aq42′ 06:46:41 am EST

Jan 31 1963 Mer D 20°Cp41′ 08:57:38 pm EST

May 06 1963 Mer R 00°Ge37′ 06:29:32 pm EDT

May 30 1963 Mer D 21°Ta43′ 02:51:30 pm EDT

Sep 06 1963 Mer R 05°Li08′ 07:09:14 pm EDT

Sep 29 1963 Mer D 20°Vi32′ 04:03:41 am EDT

Dec 26 1963 Mer R 20°Cp44′ 04:39:55 am EST

Jan 15 1964 Mer D 04°Cp29′ 06:41:50 am EST

Apr 16 1964 Mer R 11°Ta31′ 04:50:13 pm EST

May 10 1964 Mer D 01°Ta31′ 12:08:15 pm EDT

Aug 19 1964 Mer R 17°Vi57′ 10:14:14 am EDT

Sep 11 1964 Mer D 04°Vi17′ 01:48:20 pm EDT

Dec 09 1964 Mer R 04°Cp53′ 02:04:54 am EST

Dec 28 1964 Mer D 18°Sg34′ 09:14:39 pm EST

Mar 29 1965 Mer R 23°Ar15′ 09:52:27 am EST

Apr 21 1965 Mer D 11°Ar45′ 11:00:11 pm EST

Aug 01 1965 Mer R 00°Vi05′ 05:55:34 pm EDT

Aug 25 1965 Mer D 17°Le36′ 12:24:06 pm EDT

Nov 22 1965 Mer R 19°Sg04′ 09:15:31 pm EST

Dec 12 1965 Mer D 02°Sg48′ 03:39:50 pm EST

Mar 11 1966 Mer R 05°Ar44′ 09:18:18 pm EST

Apr 03 1966 Mer D 22°Pi44′ 11:24:30 pm EST

Jul 14 1966 Mer R 11°Le25′ 04:14:15 pm EDT

Aug 07 1966 Mer D 00°Le20′ 07:41:57 pm EDT

Nov 06 1966 Mer R 03°Sg14′ 12:55:10 pm EST

Nov 26 1966 Mer D 17°Sc07′ 12:49:10 pm EST

Feb 22 1967 Mer R 18°Pi48′ 11:26:00 pm EST

Mar 17 1967 Mer D 04°Pi32′ 09:27:15 am EST

Jun 26 1967 Mer R 21°Cn58′ 02:50:38 am EDT

Jul 20 1967 Mer D 12°Cn15′ 08:00:58 am EDT

Oct 21 1967 Mer R 17°Sc20′ 01:15:34 am EDT

Nov 10 1967 Mer D 01°Sc26′ 11:15:42 am EST

Feb 06 1968 Mer R 02°Pi17′ 11:40:09 am EST

Feb 28 1968 Mer D 17°Aq05′ 03:36:10 am EST

Jun 06 1968 Mer R 02°Cn01′ 01:16:29 am EDT

Jun 30 1968 Mer D 23°Ge15′ 02:09:09 am EDT

Oct 03 1968 Mer R 01°Sc15′ 07:40:02 am EDT

Oct 24 1968 Mer D 15°Li42′ 10:17:01 am EDT

Jan 20 1969 Mer R 16°Aq02′ 05:56:23 am EST

Feb 10 1969 Mer D 00°Aq14′ 04:38:04 am EST

May 17 1969 Mer R 12°Ge00′ 03:05:53 pm EDT

Jun 10 1969 Mer D 03°Ge25′ 11:47:45 am EDT

Sep 16 1969 Mer R 14°Li51′ 08:41:28 am EDT

Oct 08 1969 Mer D 29°Vi51′ 05:53:10 am EDT

Jan 04 1970 Mer R 00°Aq00′ 03:10:08 am EST

Jan 24 1970 Mer D 13°Cp51′ 11:37:43 am EST

Apr 28 1970 Mer R 22°Ta29′ 06:51:02 am EDT

May 22 1970 Mer D 13°Ta12′ 02:46:52 am EDT

Aug 30 1970 Mer R 28°Vi00′ 03:27:34 am EDT

Sep 21 1970 Mer D 13°Vi46′ 08:17:27 pm EDT

Dec 19 1970 Mer R 14°Cp05′ 00:59:00 am EST

Jan 07 1971 Mer D 27°Sg48′ 11:36:02 pm EST

Apr 09 1971 Mer R 03°Ta45′ 12:10:50 pm EST

May 03 1971 Mer D 23°Ar09′ 06:25:09 am EDT

Aug 12 1971 Mer R 10°Vi33′ 03:13:29 pm EDT

Sep 05 1971 Mer D 27°Le21′ 02:02:25 am EDT

Dec 02 1971 Mer R 28°Sg15′ 09:32:44 pm EST

Dec 22 1971 Mer D 11°Sg57′ 03:46:56 pm EST

Mar 21 1972 Mer R 15°Ar50′ 01:38:27 pm EST

Apr 13 1972 Mer D 03°Ar40′ 10:28:46 pm EST

Jul 24 1972 Mer R 22°Le21′ 07:02:08 pm EDT

Aug 17 1972 Mer D 10°Le27′ 06:38:06 pm EDT

Nov 15 1972 Mer R 12°Sg27′ 03:26:48 pm EST

Dec 05 1972 Mer D 26°Sc14′ 11:22:26 am EST

Mar 04 1973 Mer R 28°Pi35′ 07:57:48 am EST

Mar 27 1973 Mer D 15°Pi00′ 03:18:41 am EST

Jul 06 1973 Mer R 03°Le20′ 12:59:50 pm EDT

Jul 30 1973 Mer D 22°Cn51′ 05:47:10 pm EDT

Oct 30 1973 Mer R 26°Sc36′ 05:29:28 am EST

Nov 19 1973 Mer D 10°Sc33′ 09:13:43 am EST

Feb 15 1974 Mer R 11°Pi50′ 03:45:03 pm EDT

Mar 09 1974 Mer D 27°Aq08′ 06:16:09 pm EDT

Jun 17 1974 Mer R 13°Cn38′ 06:37:35 pm EDT

Jul 11 1974 Mer D 04°Cn23′ 09:56:11 pm EDT

Oct 13 1974 Mer R 10°Sc37′ 03:48:04 pm EDT

Nov 03 1974 Mer D 24°Li51′ 07:51:06 am EST

Jan 30 1975 Mer R 25°Aq26′ 05:47:45 am EST

Feb 20 1975 Mer D 09°Aq57′ 02:27:20 pm EST

May 29 1975 Mer R 23°Ge35′ 12:00:26 pm EDT

Jun 22 1975 Mer D 15°Ge00′ 11:18:24 am EDT

Sep 26 1975 Mer R 24°Li25′ 07:45:57 pm EDT

Oct 18 1975 Mer D 09°Li05′ 06:15:01 am EDT

Jan 14 1976 Mer R 09°Aq18′ 01:42:19 am EST

Feb 03 1976 Mer D 23°Cp19′ 05:56:44 pm EST

May 09 1976 Mer R 03°Ge44′ 01:04:15 am EDT

Jun 01 1976 Mer D 24°Ta56′ 09:19:56 pm EDT

Sep 08 1976 Mer R 07°Li51′ 06:03:59 pm EDT

Sep 30 1976 Mer D 23°Vi08′ 11:59:27 pm EDT

Dec 27 1976 Mer R 23°Cp19′ 11:34:08 pm EST

Jan 17 1977 Mer D 07°Cp05′ 03:00:43 am EST

Apr 19 1977 Mer R 14°Ta30′ 09:08:47 pm EST

May 13 1977 Mer D 04°Ta42′ 04:51:26 pm EDT

Aug 22 1977 Mer R 20°Vi46′ 10:18:52 am EDT

Sep 14 1977 Mer D 06°Vi56′ 11:04:03 am EDT

Dec 11 1977 Mer R 07°Cp27′ 09:10:58 pm EST

Dec 31 1977 Mer D 21°Sg08′ 05:02:03 pm EST

Apr 01 1978 Mer R 26°Ar07′ 11:17:14 am EST

Apr 25 1978 Mer D 14°Ar51′ 01:47:48 am EST

Aug 04 1978 Mer R 03°Vi00′ 07:07:26 pm EDT

Aug 28 1978 Mer D 20°Le20′ 11:40:58 am EDT

Nov 25 1978 Mer R 21°Sg37′ 04:41:43 pm EST

Dec 15 1978 Mer D 05°Sg21′ 10:56:23 am EST

Mar 14 1979 Mer R 08°Ar31′ 08:15:17 pm EST

Apr 07 1979 Mer D 25°Pi43′ 00:21:23 am EST

Jul 17 1979 Mer R 14°Le27′ 06:42:02 pm EDT

Aug 10 1979 Mer D 03°Le09′ 09:32:26 pm EDT

Nov 09 1979 Mer R 05°Sg48′ 08:54:58 am EST

Nov 29 1979 Mer D 19°Sc39′ 07:40:44 am EST

Feb 25 1980 Mer R 21°Pi30′ 08:32:42 pm EST

Mar 19 1980 Mer D 07°Pi24′ 08:58:54 am EST

Jun 28 1980 Mer R 25°Cn07′ 07:12:30 am EDT

Jul 22 1980 Mer D 15°Cn12′ 12:36:56 pm EDT

Oct 22 1980 Mer R 19°Sc55′ 09:58:38 pm EDT

Nov 12 1980 Mer D 03°Sc59′ 05:56:12 am EST

Feb 08 1981 Mer R 04°Pi55′ 07:30:58 am EST

Mar 02 1981 Mer D 19°Aq50′ 02:05:32 am EST

Jun 09 1981 Mer R 05°Cn12′ 07:35:37 am EDT

Jul 03 1981 Mer D 26°Ge20′ 08:57:46 am EDT

Oct 06 1981 Mer R 03°Sc51′ 05:15:11 am EDT

Oct 27 1981 Mer D 18°Li15′ 04:10:14 am EST

Jan 23 1982 Mer R 18°Aq38′ 01:03:11 am EST

Feb 13 1982 Mer D 02°Aq55′ 02:17:36 am EST

May 20 1982 Mer R 15°Ge10′ 10:05:28 pm EDT

Jun 13 1982 Mer D 06°Ge37′ 07:20:28 pm EDT

Sep 19 1982 Mer R 17°Li31′ 07:02:54 am EDT

Oct 11 1982 Mer D 02°Li25′ 01:21:30 am EDT

Jan 06 1983 Mer R 02°Aq34′ 09:59:41 pm EST

Jan 27 1983 Mer D 16°Cp28′ 08:25:24 am EST

May 01 1983 Mer R 25°Ta33′ 12:36:32 pm EDT

May 25 1983 Mer D 16°Ta25′ 08:48:30 am EDT

Sep 02 1983 Mer R 00°Li44′ 02:41:10 am EDT

Sep 24 1983 Mer D 16°Vi22′ 04:49:26 pm EDT

Dec 21 1983 Mer R 16°Cp39′ 07:53:10 pm EST

Jan 10 1984 Mer D 00°Cp22′ 07:37:10 pm EST

Apr 11 1984 Mer R 06°Ta41′ 03:23:33 pm EST

May 05 1984 Mer D 26°Ar18′ 10:05:37 am EDT

Aug 14 1984 Mer R 13°Vi23′ 03:33:44 pm EDT

Sep 07 1984 Mer D 00°Vi01′ 00:01:55 am EDT

Dec 04 1984 Mer R 00°Cp48′ 04:46:24 pm EST

Dec 24 1984 Mer D 14°Sg30′ 11:11:03 am EST

Mar 24 1985 Mer R 18°Ar39′ 02:00:07 pm EST

Apr 17 1985 Mer D 06°Ar43′ 00:22:49 am EST

Jul 27 1985 Mer R 25°Le18′ 08:52:08 pm EDT

Aug 20 1985 Mer D 13°Le12′ 06:47:38 pm EDT

Nov 18 1985 Mer R 15°Sg00′ 11:09:33 am EST

Dec 08 1985 Mer D 28°Sc45′ 06:23:06 am EST

Mar 07 1986 Mer R 01°Ar18′ 05:56:17 am EST

Mar 30 1986 Mer D 17°Pi55′ 03:42:00 am EST

Jul 09 1986 Mer R 06°Le25′ 04:27:05 pm EDT

Aug 02 1986 Mer D 25°Cn43′ 08:47:42 pm EDT

Nov 02 1986 Mer R 29°Sc09′ 01:47:31 am EST

Nov 22 1986 Mer D 13°Sc05′ 04:02:30 am EST

Feb 18 1987 Mer R 14°Pi30′ 11:07:12 am EST

Mar 12 1987 Mer D 29°Aq57′ 04:22:20 pm EST

Jun 20 1987 Mer R 16°Cn48′ 11:44:05 pm EDT

Jul 15 1987 Mer D 07°Cn24′ 03:51:13 am EDT

Oct 16 1987 Mer R 13°Sc12′ 12:46:03 pm EDT

Nov 06 1987 Mer D 27°Li23′ 02:39:13 am EST

Feb 02 1988 Mer R 28°Aq03′ 01:17:44 am EST

Feb 23 1988 Mer D 12°Aq40′ 12:29:42 pm EST

May 31 1988 Mer R 26°Ge47′ 06:43:13 pm EDT

Jun 24 1988 Mer D 18°Ge09′ 06:39:54 pm EDT

Sep 28 1988 Mer R 27°Li03′ 05:36:42 pm EDT

Oct 20 1988 Mer D 11°Li38′ 01:21:45 am EDT

Jan 15 1989 Mer R 11°Aq53′ 08:45:30 pm EST

Feb 05 1989 Mer D 25°Cp58′ 03:07:25 pm EST

May 12 1989 Mer R 06°Ge51′ 07:52:08 am EDT

Jun 05 1989 Mer D 28°Ta09′ 04:06:45 am EDT

Sep 11 1989 Mer R 10°Li33′ 04:57:14 pm EDT

Oct 03 1989 Mer D 25°Vi44′ 07:47:46 pm EDT

Dec 30 1989 Mer R 25°Cp53′ 06:29:08 pm EST

Jan 19 1990 Mer D 09°Cp41′ 11:31:29 pm EST

Apr 23 1990 Mer R 17°Ta31′ 02:54:31 am EDT

May 16 1990 Mer D 07°Ta55′ 10:02:00 pm EDT

Aug 25 1990 Mer R 23°Vi34′ 10:08:07 am EDT

Sep 17 1990 Mer D 09°Vi35′ 08:05:49 am EDT

Dec 14 1990 Mer R 10°Cp00′ 04:08:35 pm EST

Jan 03 1991 Mer D 23°Sg42′ 12:51:26 pm EST

Apr 04 1991 Mer R 29°Ar01′ 01:08:57 pm EST

Apr 28 1991 Mer D 17°Ar59′ 05:49:13 am EDT

Aug 07 1991 Mer R 05°Vi54′ 07:57:32 pm EDT

Aug 31 1991 Mer D 23°Le03′ 10:34:37 am EDT

Nov 28 1991 Mer R 24°Sg11′ 12:00:46 pm EST

Dec 18 1991 Mer D 07°Sg54′ 06:11:53 am EST

Mar 16 1992 Mer R 11°Ar18′ 07:32:27 pm EST

Apr 09 1992 Mer D 28°Pi44′ 02:26:07 am EDT

Jul 19 1992 Mer R 17°Le28′ 08:53:41 pm EDT

Aug 12 1992 Mer D 05°Le58′ 10:53:21 pm EDT

Nov 11 1992 Mer R 08°Sg22′ 04:49:10 am EST

Dec 01 1992 Mer D 22°Sc12′ 02:30:27 am EST

Feb 27 1993 Mer R 24°Pi12′ 05:53:40 pm EST

Mar 22 1993 Mer D 10°Pi17′ 08:43:41 am EST

Jul 01 1993 Mer R 28°Cn15′ 11:28:37 am EDT

Jul 25 1993 Mer D 18°Cn08′ 04:49:55 pm EDT

Oct 25 1993 Mer R 22°Sc30′ 06:39:33 pm EDT

Nov 15 1993 Mer D 06°Sc31′ 00:38:48 am EST

Feb 11 1994 Mer R 07°Pi34′ 03:30:00 am EST

Mar 05 1994 Mer D 22°Aq37′ 00:48:34 am EST

Jun 12 1994 Mer R 08°Cn24′ 01:48:32 pm EDT

Jul 06 1994 Mer D 29°Ge25′ 03:42:36 pm EDT

Oct 09 1994 Mer R 06°Sc28′ 02:43:44 am EDT

Oct 30 1994 Mer D 20°Li48′ 00:05:24 am EDT

Jan 25 1995 Mer R 21°Aq15′ 08:15:49 pm EST

Feb 16 1995 Mer D 05°Aq37′ 00:06:29 am EST

May 24 1995 Mer R 18°Ge21′ 05:01:47 am EDT

Jun 17 1995 Mer D 09°Ge48′ 02:58:27 am EDT

Sep 22 1995 Mer R 20°Li11′ 05:14:47 am EDT

Oct 13 1995 Mer D 04°Li59′ 08:47:20 pm EDT

Jan 09 1996 Mer R 05°Aq10′ 04:51:02 pm EST

Jan 30 1996 Mer D 19°Cp06′ 05:16:39 am EST

May 03 1996 Mer R 28°Ta38′ 06:39:52 pm EDT

May 27 1996 Mer D 19°Ta38′ 03:01:59 pm EDT

Sep 04 1996 Mer R 03°Li29′ 01:47:13 am EDT

Sep 26 1996 Mer D 18°Vi59′ 01:08:28 pm EDT

Dec 23 1996 Mer R 19°Cp13′ 02:45:53 pm EST

Jan 12 1997 Mer D 02°Cp58′ 03:41:15 pm EST

Apr 14 1997 Mer R 09°Ta39′ 08:01:14 pm EDT

May 08 1997 Mer D 29°Ar28′ 02:05:14 pm EDT

Aug 17 1997 Mer R 16°Vi13′ 03:48:39 pm EDT

Sep 09 1997 Mer D 02°Vi42′ 09:42:29 pm EDT

Dec 07 1997 Mer R 03°Cp22′ 11:55:58 am EST

Dec 27 1997 Mer D 17°Sg03′ 06:40:45 am EST

Mar 27 1998 Mer R 21°Ar29′ 02:41:45 pm EST

Apr 20 1998 Mer D 09°Ar47′ 03:31:16 am EDT

Jul 30 1998 Mer R 28°Le16′ 10:27:45 pm EDT

Aug 23 1998 Mer D 15°Le57′ 06:35:10 pm EDT

Nov 21 1998 Mer R 17°Sg33′ 06:45:56 am EST

Dec 11 1998 Mer D 01°Sg18′ 01:29:22 am EST

Mar 10 1999 Mer R 04°Ar03′ 04:11:04 am EST

Apr 02 1999 Mer D 20°Pi52′ 04:19:09 am EST

Jul 12 1999 Mer R 09°Le29′ 07:32:43 pm EDT

Aug 05 1999 Mer D 28°Cn35′ 11:26:33 pm EDT

Nov 04 1999 Mer R 01°Sg43′ 09:59:10 pm EST

Nov 24 1999 Mer D 15°Sc37′ 10:54:45 pm EST

Feb 21 2000 Mer R 17°Pi10′ 07:46:24 am EST

Mar 14 2000 Mer D 02°Pi46′ 03:39:19 pm EST

Jun 23 2000 Mer R 19°Cn57′ 04:31:55 am EDT

Jul 17 2000 Mer D 10°Cn23′ 09:20:19 am EDT

Oct 18 2000 Mer R 15°Sc47′ 09:41:01 am EDT

Nov 07 2000 Mer D 29°Li56′ 09:28:05 pm EST

Feb 03 2001 Mer R 00°Pi41′ 08:58:07 pm EST

Feb 25 2001 Mer D 15°Aq24′ 10:41:19 am EST

Jun 04 2001 Mer R 29°Ge57′ 01:21:50 am EDT

Jun 28 2001 Mer D 21°Ge15′ 01:49:05 am EDT

Oct 01 2001 Mer R 29°Li41′ 03:23:19 pm EDT

Oct 22 2001 Mer D 14°Li12′ 08:22:54 pm EDT

Jan 18 2002 Mer R 14°Aq29′ 03:49:56 pm EST

Feb 08 2002 Mer D 28°Cp37′ 12:27:44 pm EST

May 15 2002 Mer R 09°Ge59′ 02:49:56 pm EDT

Jun 08 2002 Mer D 01°Ge21′ 11:11:25 am EDT

Sep 14 2002 Mer R 13°Li14′ 03:38:27 pm EDT

Oct 06 2002 Mer D 28°Vi19′ 03:25:46 pm EDT

Jan 02 2003 Mer R 28°Cp27′ 01:19:17 pm EST

Jan 22 2003 Mer D 12°Cp17′ 08:08:08 pm EST

Apr 26 2003 Mer R 20°Ta33′ 07:58:56 am EDT

May 20 2003 Mer D 11°Ta07′ 03:32:36 am EDT

Aug 28 2003 Mer R 26°Vi19′ 09:41:23 am EDT

Sep 20 2003 Mer D 12°Vi12′ 04:52:15 am EDT

Dec 17 2003 Mer R 12°Cp33′ 11:00:58 am EST

Jan 06 2004 Mer D 26°Sg16′ 08:43:56 am EST

Apr 06 2004 Mer R 01°Ta55′ 04:27:16 pm EDT

Apr 30 2004 Mer D 21°Ar06′ 09:05:11 am EDT

Aug 09 2004 Mer R 08°Vi46′ 08:32:47 pm EDT

Sep 02 2004 Mer D 25°Le44′ 09:09:14 am EDT

Nov 30 2004 Mer R 26°Sg44′ 07:17:19 am EST

Dec 20 2004 Mer D 10°Sg27′ 01:29:03 am EST

Mar 19 2005 Mer R 14°Ar06′ 07:14:23 pm EST

Apr 12 2005 Mer D 01°Ar44′ 03:45:32 am EDT

Jul 22 2005 Mer R 20°Le28′ 11:00:05 pm EDT

Aug 15 2005 Mer D 08°Le45′ 11:50:34 pm EDT

Nov 14 2005 Mer R 10°Sg56′ 00:42:30 am EST

Dec 03 2005 Mer D 24°Sc44′ 09:23:40 pm EST

Mar 02 2006 Mer R 26°Pi55′ 03:29:07 pm EST

Mar 25 2006 Mer D 13°Pi10′ 08:42:13 am EST

Jul 04 2006 Mer R 01°Le22′ 03:33:24 pm EDT

Jul 28 2006 Mer D 21°Cn03′ 08:39:30 pm EDT

Oct 28 2006 Mer R 25°Sc04′ 03:16:01 pm EDT

Nov 17 2006 Mer D 09°Sc03′ 07:25:15 pm EST

Feb 13 2007 Mer R 10°Pi13′ 11:37:39 pm EST

Mar 07 2007 Mer D 25°Aq24′ 11:44:28 pm EST

Jun 15 2007 Mer R 11°Cn35′ 07:40:03 pm EDT

Jul 09 2007 Mer D 02°Cn28′ 10:15:15 pm EDT

Oct 11 2007 Mer R 09°Sc04′ 11:59:59 pm EDT

Nov 01 2007 Mer D 23°Li21′ 06:58:33 pm EDT

Jan 28 2008 Mer R 23°Aq52′ 03:30:52 pm EST

Feb 18 2008 Mer D 08°Aq19′ 09:57:08 pm EST

May 26 2008 Mer R 21°Ge32′ 11:47:34 am EDT

Jun 19 2008 Mer D 12°Ge58′ 10:31:07 am EDT

Sep 24 2008 Mer R 22°Li50′ 03:16:51 am EDT

Oct 15 2008 Mer D 07°Li33′ 04:05:50 pm EDT

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May 30 2009 Mer D 22°Ta52′ 09:21:54 pm EDT

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Aug 2 2011 Mer R 01°Vi12′ 11:50:02 pm EDT

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Oct 21 2013 Mer R 18°Sc23′ 06:28:46 am EDT

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Jun 07 2014 Mer R 03°Cn10′ 07:56:26 am EDT

Jul 01 2014 Mer D 24°Ge22′ 08:49:55 am EDT

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Jan 21 2015 Mer R 17°Aq05′ 10:54:10 am EST

Feb 11 2015 Mer D 01°Aq18′ 09:56:52 am EST

May 18 2015 Mer R 13°Ge08′ 09:49:05 pm EDT

Jun 11 2015 Mer D 04°Ge33′ 06:32:55 pm EDT

Sep 17 2015 Mer R 15°Li55′ 02:09:27 pm EDT

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Jan 05 2016 Mer R 01°Aq02′ 08:05:33 am EST

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Apr 28 2016 Mer R 23°Ta36′ 01:19:40 pm EDT

May 22 2016 Mer D 14°Ta20′ 09:19:36 am EDT

Aug 30 2016 Mer R 29°Vi04′ 09:03:48 am EDT

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Dec 19 2016 Mer R 15°Cp07′ 05:55:10 am EST

Jan 08 2017 Mer D 28°Sg50′ 04:42:39 am EST

Apr 09 2017 Mer R 04°Ta50′ 07:14:16 pm EDT

May 03 2017 Mer D 24°Ar15′ 12:32:36 pm EDT

Aug 12 2017 Mer R 11°Vi38′ 09:00:26 pm EDT

Sep 05 2017 Mer D 28°Le25′ 07:29:19 am EDT

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Mar 22 2018 Mer R 16°Ar54′ 08:18:46 pm EDT

Apr 15 2018 Mer D 04°Ar46′ 05:20:43 am EDT

Jul 26 2018 Mer R 23°Le27′ 01:02:18 am EDT

Aug 19 2018 Mer D 11°Le31′ 00:24:39 am EDT

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Mar 05 2019 Mer R 29°Pi38′ 01:18:36 pm EST

Mar 28 2019 Mer D 16°Pi05′ 09:58:40 am EDT

Jul 07 2019 Mer R 04°Le27′ 07:14:20 pm EDT

Jul 31 2019 Mer D 23°Cn56′ 11:57:41 pm EDT

Oct 31 2019 Mer R 27°Sc38′ 11:41:21 am EDT

Nov 20 2019 Mer D 11°Sc35′ 02:11:33 pm EST

Feb 16 2020 Mer R 12°Pi53′ 07:53:52 pm EST

Mar 09 2020 Mer D 28°Aq12′ 11:48:27 pm EDT

Jun 18 2020 Mer R 14°Cn45′ 00:58:44 am EDT

Jul 12 2020 Mer D 05°Cn29′ 04:26:14 am EDT

Oct 13 2020 Mer R 11°Sc40′ 09:04:52 pm EDT

Nov 03 2020 Mer D 25°Li53′ 12:49:35 pm EST

Jan 30 2021 Mer R 26°Aq29′ 10:51:32 am EST

Feb 20 2021 Mer D 11°Aq01′ 07:51:50 pm EST

May 29 2021 Mer R 24°Ge43′ 05:33:53 pm EST

Jun 22 2021 Mer D 16°Ge07′ 04:59:53 pm EST

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Jun 14 2028 Mer D 07°Ge45′ 01:05:38 am EST

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Oct 11 2028 Mer D 03°Li28′ 05:27:10 am EST

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Jan 17 2035 Mer R 12°Aq56′ 01:43:50 am EST

Feb 06 2035 Mer D 27°Cp01′ 08:24:12 pm EST

May 13 2035 Mer R 07°Ge59′ 01:39:52 pm EST

Jun 06 2035 Mer D 29°Ta18′ 09:52:08 am EST

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Aug 14 2038 Mer D 07°Le02′ 03:48:37 am EST

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Apr 26 2049 Mer R 21°Ta39′ 01:19:01 pm EST

May 20 2049 Mer D 12°Ta15′ 08:56:13 am EST

Aug 28 2049 Mer R 27°Vi24′ 02:20:26 pm EST

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Dec 17 2049 Mer R 13°Cp36′ 03:58:16 pm EST

The Void-of-Course Moon: From Linear Time to Lunar Time

©2003 J. Lee Lehman

The void-of-course Moon has been listed as a debility (weakened) since Arabic times. However, listing it as debilitated is one thing: coming up with a cogent meaning is another. What did the ancients mean by believing it weakened? What continuity is there with modern astrology thinking? And, how can we use these ideas in application? These are the issues this article will attempt to address.


First, let’s define our terms. The Moon is void-of-course when it makes no applying ptolemaic aspects (conjunction, sextile, square, trine, opposition) until the end of the sign in which it is posited. Because this definition is dependent on the positions of the other planets, there is no fixed degree at which the Moon goes void in any particular sign. This means that in any sign, the Moon spends a variable length of time void.

We shall explore the meaning of the term “void-of-course,” but let’s begin with the definition from deVore’s Encyclopedia:

“Void-of-Course. Said of a planet that forms no complete aspect before leaving the Sign in which it is posited at birth. When the Moon is so placed it denies fruition to much of the good otherwise promised in the Figure. In horary astrology a planet so placed is said to indicate a person devoid of objective or purpose, hence one who abandons him self to aimless endeavor.”

There are two things to note about this definition:

(1) The concept of “void” applies to all planets, not just the Moon; and

(2) While horary is mentioned, there is clearly a natal interpretation as well.

How the Ancients Defined Void-of Course

In the Liber Hermetis, a work attributed to Hermes Trismegistes, the author defined the nature of the void period according to the last aspect of the Moon. For example, separation from Saturn causes losses through parents. Separation from Venus produces lewd men if waxing, and full of vice, if waning. This use of examining the last aspect of the Moon before going void is a technique that still applies, except that it has been extended to include the use of the outer planets as well.

Guido Bonatti, one of the great astrologers of the Middle Ages, took much of the Arabic learning on astrology, and codified it. A supreme influence to later generations even centuries later, William Lilly and his student Henry Coley extracted a number of aphorisms from Bonatti’s works, and published them in translation. Here, we see Aphorisms 19, 62 and 64:

19. The Nineteenth Consideration is, To behold the Moon if she be “void of course” for then it signifies an impediment to the thing in question: it will not come to a good end, nor be accomplished; but the Querent shall be forced to desist with shame and loss.

62. [The Moon Void of Course] …signifies that the thing enquired after shall scarce ever come to a good end, or not without much labor, sorrow, and trouble, unless the Lord of the Ascendant or significator of the thing, shall be in very good condition, and then it may be hindered, but not wholly frustrated; yet ’tis a good time then for drinking, bathing, feasting, etc., and to use ointments for taking away of hair, especially if she be in Scorpio.

64. The 64th is to consider, Whether the Moon be in Cancer, Taurus, Sagittarius, or Pisces; for it signifies good in the business, although she be joined to the Infortunes and not to the Fortunes; nor does she, being void of course, prejudice so much in those places as elsewhere, provided she be not Combust, for then they will advantage her little or nothing.

These three aphorisms seem to be most appropriate for horary or electional application. Aphorism 64 gives a rule that was still in use by Lilly in the seventeenth century: minimizing the void effect for the two signs of the Moon (her rulership and exaltation), and the two Jupiter-ruled signs.

Lilly shows several things in practice, as opposed to theory:

*  He didn’t treat the Moon as void if it was within orb of an aspect in the next sign.
*  This was doubly true if the Moon was in one of the four “good” signs.
*  Even if the Moon were void in one of the other eight signs, and not applying to an out-of-sign aspect, the Moon void by itself was not sufficient argument to give an instant “no” to the outcome.

In sum, Lilly’s treatment of the Moon void-of-course makes it look like a relatively minor debility, not a destructive debility which can hamper the effectiveness of the Moon. The obvious point is that a void-of-course Moon cannot be interpreted by its aspects: and this may explain why some astrology systems are so out to sea about how to interpret it, especially those systems which are much more dependant on aspects to accomplish the delineation.

Bonatti’s definition in Liber Astronomiae III suggests that the Moon is void until it comes into aspect with another planet, not merely when it goes into a new sign. This is the theory that has been picked up upon more recently by Sue Ward and Maurice McCann. This idea may actually reflect upon a particular issue in electional, namely the importance of the next aspect of the Moon. On a day in which the Moon is not in orb of a next aspect, the effect from an electional standpoint may be very analogous to the sense of a void-of-course Moon.

Classically, when the Moon is void-of-course, it must be interpreted even more strongly through its sign, and especially its dispositor (planet in rulership of another planet). If these do not provide a problem, then the condition of the Moon void-of-course is not grave.

The Modern Void-of-Course Moon

If Lilly’s interpretation that the void Moon isn’t that serious, how did it get its current reputation? Here we probably have the clearest scope by examining the history of horary or electional astrology, as the concept of void seems most evident in these branches. Marc Edmund Jones had this to say about the void Moon condition:

“One basic rule of exceptional importance in horary astrology is that no planet can ever move out of one sign, into another, to make an aspect of significance in reference to the given question or matter for which the chart is erected. This rule gives rise to the next, or the third, of the preliminary ‘considerations before judgment.’ The moon, because of its swiftness of motion, and its consequent significance in indicating the superficial focus of a given issue, must make some major aspect to at least one of the other planets before it leaves the sign in which it lies at the moment of issue. Otherwise, the chart is not valid because the moon is ‘void of course.’ There is then a definite lack of pertinent dynamic in the situation, and judgment will be unsound unless the static nature of the circumstances have a special meaning in the given case.”

Jones applied the traditional name of “considerations before judgment” to the list of conditions that needed to be at least itemized before proceeding with the horary judgment. But then he says that the horary is not valid. What is this? Lilly never said that the question isn’t valid. Notice that Jones also seems to preclude aspects in orb, but out-of-sign. Ivy Goldstein-Jacobson referred to that list as “cautions,” but didn’t deviate greatly from typical classical style when she said:

“First note whether the Moon makes any aspect good or bad to Fortuna (Jupiter); if so, she is only zodiacally void of course (not aspecting a planet). Then note whether the question has to do with a project, or with a querent who is sick, worried or frightened. In either case, the keyword for you to remember to use is NOTHING.

“If completely void of course, a project or anything begun will be abandoned or reversed so that NOTHING is to come of it…. If completely void of course, a sick or worried person is needlessly upset and NOTHING will come of his fears or his symptoms, and he will be cured….

“If in any aspect to Fortuna the Moon is only zodiacally void of course. If the aspect is a parallel, conjunction, sextile or trine NOTHING BUT SUCCESS will be experienced…”

Goldstein-Jacobson has simplified the practical definition by ignoring the four signs that were exceptions, but the aspect to Fortuna makes perfect sense in a classical context, even though I haven’t seen it spelled out using this rule in a classical source.

The interpretation of Barbara Watters was definitely more grim. She designated it as the first “stricture against judgment,” defining the void-of-course Moon in the usual way. But there is no classical evidence for this urban legend whatsoever. Goldstein-Jacobson’s use of the word “cautions” for essentially the same list of conditions much more accurately expresses the traditional viewpoint. At any rate, after defining void, Watters gives this rationale (page 14):

“The reason for this stricture is that, in horary astrology, the Moon rules function. When it makes no aspect to another planet until after it leaves the sign it is in, nothing functions in the situation that gave rise to the question. Therefore until circumstances change, which they will do when the Moon moves into the next sign, the situation is not viable. It has no future as things stand. This may be because the question was unnecessary or of no real concern to the querent. It may be because vital facts pertaining to the problem are unknown to him. Most commonly it means that in the very near future something unforeseen will happen which will render the whole matter of the question null and void.

“For instance, suppose the querent asks if he will get a certain job. A void-of-course Moon in the chart often means that it makes no difference whether or not he gets it because in the near future, perhaps even in a day or so, he won’t want it or can’t accept it. He may be offered a better job, he may suddenly have to move, circumstances surrounding the job that he asked about may change so radically that it becomes undesirable. But whatever the reason, don’t try to find it in a void-of-course Moon chart. You can’t. The chart is inscrutable because the question was asked about a dead-in issue.”

This description is very stark. Historically, this level of negativity would have been restricted to a Moon in debility, afflicted by malefics, eclipsed, etc.: in other words, one or more of the eleven impeditions mentioned by ibn Ezra or earlier authors.

From Watters’ description, it was not a far step to the Void-of-Course Moon described by the late Al Morrison. Al published a void-of-course Moon ephemeris for many years, and publicized the theory that U.S. presidential candidates who are nominated under a void-of-course Moon lose. Voids are shown in the ACS Ephemeris, and other such reference guides, not to mention typical astrological calendars. Voids, like Mercury retrograde, the two bugaboos of modern astrology, both have the advantage of being easy to define and track, thereby making available these techniques even to non-astrologers, given a little bit of training in reading the tables.

From this mushrooming of interest has evolved the idea that a void-of-course Moon is not only anathema in horary, but it must be avoided like the plague in event interpretation and electional. Here, for example, is the opinion of Bruce Scofield, a noted modern electional astrologer (http://stariq.com/Main/Articles/P0002724.HTM):

“Many astrological calendars and datebooks give the exact times of these periods, which occur every few days. As its name implies, the void-of-course Moon period marks a time of drift. It’s a time when time itself seems to bend and turn, and not head straight to the next milepost. While the Moon moves through space, disconnected from the other planets, life on Earth likewise moves along with a weak sense of direction. And like Mercury retrograde, this period definitely works. Anyone planning to commence an important event, like opening a business or starting off on a trip, should make sure they know when the Moon is void-of-course.

“When the Moon is void-of-course don’t expect to meet all your goals. Don’t expect to settle disputes in meetings or make real progress with any new business. Don’t do something really important for the first time, and don’t try to force things along a preconceived path. But also, don’t get paranoid about it. There are plenty of ways to use, and even enjoy, the qualities of the void-of-course Moon. It’s a great time for getting on with unfinished business, for cleaning up that which is left over, and for simply letting things happen..”

What is especially good about Bruce’s comment is that he spells out the modern take on the void-of-course, but then tells you to not get too paranoid! He then even gives some ideas about constructive things to do under a void.

Turning back to natal, Karen Hamaker-Zondag discusses a related concept and its psychological components: unaspected planets. Not all void-of-course Moons qualify as unaspected, because they may still be in orb of a separating aspect. Karen also cuts off aspects absolutely at sign boundaries, so a later void Moon, which has separated from any aspects by orb, will still be unaspected even if it is applying to an out-of-sign aspect:

“The Moon represents the self-protective attitude we adopt whenever we feel threatened or insecure. When unaspected, either we may fall prey to increasing uncertainty, or may isolate ourselves by, metaphorically speaking, going to live on our own little desert island. With no aspects to restrain it, the Moon will tend to make the native exceptionally caring, cherishing, motherly and protective. The imagination is often well developed too. An aspectless Moon offers few handholds and little stability: by nature, the Moon has such an uncertain quality that when it is allied with a (sometimes extreme) all-or-nothing attitude, there is no telling what the native will do from one minute to the next.

“Women with an unaspected Moon often have difficulty in experiencing their femininity. Frequently (and this is true of both sexes), the bond with the mother is not a happy one, and they themselves may not be really maternal. In a man, there can be incomprehension of what to expect from a partner and of how to treat her, and he can flit from one type of woman to another.”

What is especially interesting about Karen’s definition above is that Karen is both a Jungian and a horary astrologer, in which her treatment of void follows Ivy with two major classical additions:

1.     She recognizes the possibility of an out-of-sign aspect weakening the void tendencies.
2.     She listed the four exceptional signs, listing Lilly as her source.

The bulk of the information on void-of-course Moons remains in the realm of a kind of semi-electional, semi-mundane influence, namely the issue of what is appropriate to do during the void-of-course Moon period. We see this approach in Bruce’s comments above, and we see it in this definition from www.stariq.com:

“According to traditional astrology, activities begun during this time are unlikely to produce tangible results. A void-of-course Moon in a horary chart renders it unreadable for some practitioners. However, modern astrologers interpret this period a s a psychological “free zone” in which therapy and intuitive work are favored.”

This “free zone” idea has become quite popular as an organizing principle for the constructive use of the void-of-course Moon. For example, the Swiss psychological astrologer Verena Bachmann likes to use void periods for what she calls open-ended or non-goal oriented counseling sessions (personal communication). Jenni Stone, in an article in The Mountain Astrologer, lists twelve types of things to do under a void period, some overlapping with Bruce’s list. Other activities that made it onto Stone’s list are: editing and correcting, relaxation, planning, socializing, routine travel if you are strictly a passenger, doing something you’ve never done (but probably not something dangerous, and not something that is goal-oriented), and spiritual practice.

This is all well and good, but was Al Morrison right in warning us about starting important events (like presidential nominations) under a void-of-course Moon? The answer is: It depends.

One of the things that we need to distinguish is between reoccurring or routine events, and special events. For example, every year, the National Football League sponsors the Superbowl game between the National Football Conference champion and the American Football Conference champion. There is great hoopla and much betting associated with this event, and yet it can be considered reoccurring or routine in that it takes place every year in late January (or rarely early February) in a sunbelt city, with the location generally announced at least a year in advance. Also, being a playoff game, it must have a victor, as the game will be continued if there is a tie at the end of regulation play. So we could say that the routine outcome is that a winner will emerge. There have been three Superbowls played when the Moon was void at the start of the game: numbers VII, IX and XIX. (There have been thirty-seven played as of January 2003.) As I have been involved with using a quantitative model to predict the outcome of sporting events, I can report that those three games didn’t seem to act in any way differently to the non-void games, and that my predictive percentage is the same for void vs. non-void games, albeit three being a very small sample!

Another example of reoccurring or routine events is each year’s baseball playoffs. In the period from 1997 to 2003, thirty-nine playoff games were played with the Moon void-of-course. I was especially interested to see if the winner during a void game was jinxed against winning that playoff. Wrong! Thirty-one times out of thirty-nine (a startling 79 percent!) the victor during the void went on to win the play-off in question: and four of those thirty-nine games were ones in which the victory that occurred clinched the series. In this case, it would even seem worth betting on a team once it wins a void game!

It would even seem that incorporations might count as reoccurring or routine. In a data set of 553 successful corporations (the kind you would see prominently in the business pages), sixty-seven had void of course Moons (12 percent of the total). Of these “void” corporations, twenty-eight were in the classically better void signs (41 percent vs. 33 percent expected). So it really does look better to be void in the Moon’s or Jupiter’s signs.

What’s Going on Here?

I think that the real essence of the meaning of void periods is found by going back to a fundamental structure underlying Hellenistic astrology: the idea of sect. The sect of a chart means whether the chart is cast for day or night, and not only is there the sect of the chart, but both planets and signs have sect as well. The masculine signs are diurnal; the feminine signs are nocturnal. The Sun, Jupiter, and Saturn are diurnal; the Moon, Venus and Mars are nocturnal. But perhaps most important here is the concept of sect light, for the Sun rules all day charts, and the Moon rules all night charts as the sect light.

In the Hellenistic system more than any since, a chart was fundamentally different by day or by night. Putting this idea into modern parlance, a solar chart is one governed by reason and rationality, as well as linear time; a lunar chart is governed by intuition and cyclic time. Our society wildly favors the linear model of time, where we march knowingly from Point A to Point B to Point C. (The fact that it almost never works that way is not the point!) Whenever the Moon is dominant, then cyclic time takes over as the major metaphor. A void period is a lunar time, and hence, the worriment about getting “goals” accomplished then. It’s not that accomplishing goals is impossible during lunar time, it just requires more creativity and intuition to get there!

Alexandrinus, Paulus. circa 378 C.E. Introductory Matters. Translated by Robert Schmidt. Project Hindsight: Golden Hind Press: Berkeley Springs, WV, 1993.

Antiochus of Athens. 1993. The Thesaurus. Translated by Robert Schmidt. Project Hindsight: Golden Hind Press: Berkeley Springs, WV.

Bonatti, Guido. Liber Astronomiae. Part III. Translated by Robert Zoller. Project Hindsight: Berkeley Springs, WV, 1995.

Bonatus, Guido. 1676. The Astrologer’s Guide. Translated by Henry Coley. Facsimile printing of the 1886 edition in 1986 by Regulus Publishing Co., Ltd.: London.

deVore, Nicholas. 1957. Encyclopedia of Astrology. Philosophical Library: New York.

Goldstein-Jacobson, Ivy M. 1960. Simplified Horary Astrology. Frank Severy Publishing: Alhambra, CA.

Hamaker-Zondag, Karen. 1983, 1993. Handbook of Horary Astrology. Weiser: York Beach.

Hamaker-Zondag, Karen. 1990. Aspects and Personality. Weiser: York Beach.

Hermes. Liber Hermetis. Part II. Translated by Robert Zoller. Project Hindsight: Berkeley Springs, WV, 1993.

Jones, Marc Edmund. 1966. Horary Astrology. Sabian Publishing Society: Stanwood, WA.

Lehman, J. Lee. 2001. Martial Art of Horary Astrology. Whitford Press: West Chester, PA.

Levy, Rachel. 1939. The Beginning of Wisdom: An Astrological Treatise by Abraham ibn Ezra. Johns Hopkins: Baltimore.

Lilly, William. 1647. Christian Astrology. Reprinted in 1985 by Regulus: London. Also available: Just Us & Associates.

Maternus, Firmicus. 334. Ancient Astrology Theory And Practice. Matheseos Libri VIII. Translated By Jean Rhys Bram. Noyes Press: Park Ridge NJ. 1975. Available Ballantrae.

Stone, Jenni. 2003. Understanding the Void-of-Course Moon. The Mountain Astrologer Oct/Nov: 52-56.

Watters, Barbara. 1973. Horary Astrology and the Judgment of Events. Valhalla: Washington, DC.

Enron: A Bankruptcy

©2002 J. Lee Lehman

It is very tempting to apply some sort of editorial statement as part of the title, like “A Study in Corporate Greed.” But let’s not kid ourselves. Enron is merely one of the more flagrant cases, not necessarily the worst. Enron is simply: The Company That Got Caught.


As astrologers, what can we learn from this case? The first thing we have to remember is that corporations are not biological entities: once they are born, they buy other companies, sell off pieces, acquire other pieces, and either add new or shut down old product lines. From an astrological standpoint, each of these events can be represented as a chart. So then what is the chart of a company?

In Enron’s case, we begin in 1930 with the formation of the Northern Natural Gas Company (NNGC) by three small utility companies for the purpose of piping natural gas north from Kansas to Nebraska. Thus, we see that the nature of the company at the beginning was supplying energy between neighboring states via a conduit system.i As is not uncommon in the USA, the incorporation of NNGC occurred in Delaware, a state which has long had very advantageous tax and filing laws for corporations. Let us examine this first chart.

There are three strongly dignified planets: Venus, Mars and Saturn. Saturn’s dignity is somewhat compromised, since Saturn is also retrograde, which weakens the strength of its placement in its own sign. Notice that Venus and Mars rule the 3rd-9th House axis. Normally, we wouldn’t be commenting upon this, but NNGC was formed to connect neighboring states – definitely a 3rd House function. So we would be tempted to conclude that they would do a good job at this.

The reason that I said we would be tempted to conclude that they would do a good job, rather than saying that they would, is that the partile Mercury-Venus conjunction is also conjunct the fixed star Algol. Algol is the Head of the Medusa in the constellation of Perseus – it has one of the most baleful interpretations of any fixed star. The traditional association with Algol is beheading. My interpretation of Algol is this: we all make bad decisions from time to time. With Algol in tropical Taurus, the problem is that the person stays with a bad decision long after it’s seen clearly as ill-advised, inappropriate, or wrong. But this raises yet one more point concerning fixed star interpretation: for the scenario to unfold, the Native has to be in a position to err in a big way. Which means that the fixed stars are often associated with prominence before a fall.

This Venus conjunct Algol rules both the 3rd and the 10th – and Venus strong in its own sign is posited in the 10th as well. Thus, the mistaken approach is all too likely to come from the person in charge – the 10th House Corporate Executive Officer, or owner, in a corporate chart.

Before we dwell on this item too long, it’s worth reminding ourselves that the company that NNGC became lasted for seventy years before getting into serious trouble. For much of that time, it was a highly successful company, only laying the seeds for its destruction in the late 1980’s.

Several other factors are worth noticing in the chart before we proceed to other events. Neptune has been assigned as the ruler of oil by modern astrologers; the ancient ruler would be the Moon, as the ruler of all liquids. Neptune in the 1st House trine the Sun seems absolutely appropriate for a company involved with this commodity. The Moon in Pisces (in participating Triplicity) in a sextile to Venus, Ruler of the 10th, is not a bad signature either. Of considerable interest is that the Moon is conjunct the fixed star Scheat, which is a “shipwreck” star. We shall see this fixed star become prominent as we proceed with our story. For now, we have a corporation with some well-dignified planets, but some danger signals.

Time passed. NNGC grew, diversified, and was renamed InterNorth. In 1985, InterNorth acquired Houston Natural Gas Corporation, as well with its subsidiaries, which included Houston Natural Gas Oil Company.

Texas has been a major producing state for oil and natural gas in the USA. While oil was known in Texas since early in the 20th Century, full development had to wait until 1953, when the federal government sorted out issues regarding land ownership and development rights. Astrologically, this was marked by the Saturn-Neptune conjunction in Libra. A large number of Texas oil companies started at that time.

Northern

One of these companies was Houston Natural Gas Production Company, founded February 24, 1953.ii This company was founded to acquire and develop oil and natural gas properties. It was a child of Houston Natural Gas Company. Its chart, set for Austin, Texas, is quite revealing.

Of course, the whole signature of the Saturn-Neptune conjunction in this chart is the definition of real estate with regard to oil production. Neptune is conjunct the fixed star Spica, the most fortunate star in the Heavens. Saturn rules the Midheaven, and is exalted: strong benefit from real estate deals. Interestingly, exaltations in general have a story involving benefit by others’ largesse; in this case, it was federal government rulings which benefited the oil companies. Mercury in Pisces would at first seem unfortunate as a chart ruler, but the Mercury is rendered by the Moon, which is in the 2nd House. Mercury also rules the 5th House, which might seem irrelevant to a company chart, but in this case is highly specific; drilling for oil is nothing less than a gamble. Sometimes it pays off big; often, it’s a dry well. HNGPC’s first well was dry. Because of the speculative nature of drilling, we must put the activity in the 5th House – and so an Ascendant ruler also ruling the 5th is highly descriptive, as is the Saturn-Neptune conjunction in the 5th House, conjunct the Part of Fortune, no less! The highly dignified Moon in the 2nd in aspect to the Ruler of the 5th brings the profit from the 5th to the 2nd – a very beneficial aspect.

Before we consider the 1985 acquisition chart, we should note that InterNorth was the larger partner in this merger. Kenneth Lay was the Chairman of the smaller Houston Natural Gas, but despite this, he shortly became Chairman of the merged larger entity, and moved InterNorth’s headquarters from the Midwest to Texas. Lay is credited with changing InterNorth’s name to Enron in 1986.

Houston

Here in the merger chart we have dignified Mercury ruling both 1st and 10th House. As in the original InterNorth chart, Venus is again the Ruler of the 2nd house, dignified in Taurus. However, there is not the emphasis on speculation that we saw with the HNGPC chart – now the Ruler of the 2nd is in the 8th (other people’s money and debt) and the Ruler of the 5th is peregrine and retrograde! In fact, as early as 1987, Enron moved its production and exploration divisions into Enron Oil and Gas Company, which was eventually spun off from Enron Corporation. This corporation, now known as EOG Resources, Inc., was completely independent by 1999, and was unaffected by the bankruptcy of Enron. While it took some time for the company to become independent, EOG was first traded on the NYSE on October 4, 1989.iii

We do have a chart for the changeover to “independence” for EOG Resources: August 16, 1999. The announcement was for the end of a changeover in shares, which occurred at the end of trading on that particular day. For that reason, this chart is done for 4:00 pm EDT in New York, as it involved the end of trading.iv

What immediately strikes one about the chart is how little it is related to the prior charts, the closest resemblance being to HNGPC. That similarity would make sense, as one could make a case for HNGPC being the grandparent of EOG, from the standpoint of actual business activity. But what is different about EOG is the heavy emphasis on succedent houses and fixed signs.

In classical astrology, the mark of an emperor, which is just another way of saying a prominent and powerful person, is an emphasis on angular houses and masculine signs. With this amount of succedent emphasis, this chart does not represent an entity which will tend to be a news magnet. It is a company that goes about its business without much fanfare. Succedent placements are considered weakly accidentally dignified. The Ruler of the 2nd is in the 5th, while the Almuten of the 2nd House is Mars in Scorpio, one of the two powerfully dignified planets in this chart. The other highly dignified planet is the Sun, the Almuten of the 4th, which surely can refer to the property resources that an oil company acquires. Neptune in the 2nd House makes sense for an oil company, as does Uranus, given the erratic nature of drilling for oil. What is interesting about Venus, Ruler of the 10th, retrograde and at 29 degrees is that the changeover in ownership was immediately followed by a changeover in the personnel at the top of the company.

It would seem strange on the surface that Enron would split off its division which represented the supply chain for its pipeline system. There are two considerations that make this understandable. The first is that the pipeline system in 1992 accounted for 80% of Enron’s revenues, so production was never the major player anyway. The second concerned a major regulatory shift which occurred under the first Bush Administration.

In late 1992, Enron and several other corporations asked the Commodity Futures Trading Commission to exempt energy futures trading from government oversight. The decision was reached to do this in the weeks between the 1992 election and the beginning of President Clinton’s term of office. The Chair of the CFTC at that time was Wendy Gramm, a Reagan staffer, and wife of Senator Phil Gramm of Texas.v The result of this deregulation was that within ten years, 80% of Enron’s income came from energy and other futures trading. We know now that this changeover was the result of Jeffrey Skilling’s vision of the energy futures market, combined with Andrew Fastow’s utilization of “special purpose entities,” which effectively hid Enron’s debts from investors, giving it a much more attractive image than it would have merited had its true financial condition been known.

Lay was evidently seen – both within the company and without – as the grand “old” man: the CEO with the generous touch.vi We see the generosity through Venus in Pisces, exalted, ruling the Ascendant. We see his drive to do something new – definitely not a normal characteristic of the oil industry – through his New Moon in Aries, with that exalted Sun ruling the Descendant, and the Moon ruling the M.C.

If we examine Lay’s chart compared to the merger chart, we begin to see how it is that this man, who was head of the smaller of the two corporations, could find himself top dog in the not too distant future. Lay’s Sun-Mercury was sextile the merge Sun; and his Mars-Jupiter was conjunct that Sun. Here is a man with deep connections to this merger chart. Notice also the Saturn-Uranus of Lay’s chart is conjunct the critical Mercury-Venus conjunction in InterNorth’s chart. Notice that both InterNorth’s and the merger’s Venuses are in dignified Taurus – a nice sextile to Lay’s exalted Venus. Lay appears to represent a charismatic embodiment of InterNorth’s leadership (i.e., 10th House).

And for a time period, he was. Enron’s ENE stock stayed mostly below 7 from 1984 until May of 1991. The US began bombing Iraq in January 1991, so the subsequent run up presumably represented in part uncertainty concerning foreign markets. By the 1992 election (which Clinton won from Bush), share price had increased to 12. A dip after Clinton’s election would be understandable: after all, anyone would assume he would be less sensitive to the oil industry than Bush, and his pro-environmental stand could have been harmful. But other than a minor plateau effect right around the time of the election, ENE increased during the first few months of the Clinton Administration, achieving 15 by March 1993. ENE increased 50% in 1993 (although it dipped back by the end of the year), was essentially unchanged in 1994, increased 30% in 1995, increased 16% in 1996, dropped 10% in 1997, increased 42% in 1998, increased 57% in 1999 (with a 2:1 split on August 16th). In 2000, the share price began at 40, and ended near 82.5, for an increase of 206%! All of 2001 actually represented a drop in share price, with the steep decline in the Autumn, leading to a share price as I am writing this of 0.67. The major day price drop occurred on November 28th, 2001, just before the bankruptcy was filed.

We have an exact time for the bankruptcy filing, thanks to some clever sleuthing.vii When we examine the bankruptcy chart, it’s important that we first understand what the filing of “Chapter 11” actually means, so that we know the best way to evaluate the chart. The type of bankruptcy filing that Enron filed is to permit the corporation protection from creditors in order to allow the company to reorganize itself with the goal to returning to profitability. Only a few weeks after the Enron filing, KMart, the third largest general retail chain in the USA also filed for Chapter 11 – in their case, the reorganization will probably involve closing a certain number of their less profitable stores.

In Enron’s case, the filing also marked the beginning of the release of corporate financial data that, at the very least, suggests that the company deliberately created a series of other companies in order to conceal losses, thus allowing the stock to remain higher than it would have were the true financial condition of the company known.

When we examine the bankruptcy filing chart, one of the first things we notice is that fixed signs are on all four angles. This is significant. The purpose of a bankruptcy is to allow reorganization, but fixed signs oppose any change. If that impression needs any confirmation, Mars, Ruler of the Ascendant, is in a fixed sign. Mars has dignity only by Term, which is considered a minor dignity: the dignity by Term allows Enron to appear to be in better condition than it actually is.

There are more components of this bankruptcy, however, than just the quality of the angles. Let’s consider some of the most important points:

There are three void of course planets in this chart, an unusually high number. The Moon is Void of Course at 29 Gemini. Venus is Void of Course at 29 Scorpio in the sign of her Detriment. And Mars is Void of Course, if we don’t allow the Moon to change signs twice to reach the opposition.

Taken together, these two factors point to the difficulty of change in a chart representing an event that by its very nature is supposed to effect change. When the nature of the chart resists the nature of the event, there is a real problem with the outcome of the event!

So what happened to Enron, other than a good case of karma catching up? The original Northern Natural Gas Company chart shows part of the story, with Midheaven Ruler Venus hit by the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction of 2000. Notice that this conjunction occurred in the middle of the largest run-up in share price that Enron ever experienced. What’s worth contemplating here is that this conjunction occurred with Jupiter peregrine, and Saturn having dignity only by Term. In classical astrology, a major conjunction is rated in part by how dignified each of the conjoining planets is. The last Jupiter-Saturn conjunction in Libra featured two strong planets. Here we have weak and weaker. What this implies is that the 1980 conjunction presaged good effects from both Jupiter and Saturn; in the current cycle both will promise more than they deliver.

Here, the implication from the InterNorth chart is clear: management may benefit through the immediate impact of the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction, but they better be clean, or the effects of Algol will shortly become apparent!

While the InterNorth chart was being hit by the Jupiter-Saturn conjunction, the old Houston Natural Gas Production Company chart was afflicted by Saturn. Transiting Saturn for the bankruptcy was partile conjunct the Ascendant! The InterNorth-HNG Merger chart was being impacted by transiting Pluto conjunct Uranus and transiting Uranus square Saturn. Notice that EOG Resources was not being hit by the Outer Planets, and they were free of the whole Enron mess by this time.

In addition to the immediate transits, Northern Natural Gas Company in 2001 was 71 years old; it was in a 12th House profectional year. Beyond just the very nature of a 12th House year, in the chart, Pluto is right on the Ascendant for the year, the 12th House cusp – and this was being affected by “too much of a good thing” Jupiter. So this would surely represent danger. Houston Natural Gas Production Company had just turned 48; it was in a 1st House profectional year, and we have already seen that Saturn was sitting on that Ascendant. The InterNorth-HNG merger chart was 16 years old: it was in a 5th House profectional year, and we have seen 5th House profectional chart Ruler Saturn was afflicted by Uranus. Furthermore, Kenneth Lay is in a 12th House profectional year, with Saturn partile square his 12th House cusp and profectional Ascendant at the time of the bankruptcy filing!

Thus, all of the significant charts that we could easily use for Enron show afflictions by Outer Planets in the year 2001. Does this necessitate bankruptcy? I would say that it doesn’t, provided that the company involved is prepared to survive reverses and scrutiny. That was Enron’s problem: it was a house of cards waiting to be knocked over.

Vocabulary Terms

Almuten: Each of the five essential dignities were assigned points – 5 for Sign, 4 for Exaltation, 3 for Triplicity, 2 for Term, and 1 for Face. The Almuten was the planet that had the highest number of points in that zodiacal degree. It was used as an alternate House ruler or dispositor.

Participating Triplicity: there are three types of Triplicity rulers, where the Triplicity dignity refers to the element of the planet or cusp in question. Participating is the Ruler which is not specific to Day or Night, and was generally judged as weaker than the Day or Night Ruler. In horary, it seems to be totally useless.

Peregrine means lacking all five essential dignities. It’s linguistic root is the same as “pilgrim,” and that explains its meaning. It vacillates, and is considered weak. Virtually all charts contain peregrine planets, and these are the planets that the Native has to “learn” to use.

Profection is a system of examining the chart using 1 year of life = 1 house. Thus, years 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, and 72 are 1st House years, years 1, 13, 25, 37, 49, 61, and 73 are 2nd House years, etc. While this does not appear in the classical literature, each year seems to have some of the flavor of that house, and it is interpreted by using that house cusp as the Ascendant, as in using the 2nd House cusp as the Ascendant in a 2nd House profectional year, etc.

Rendering is said to occur when a planet that is debilitated by either combustion or retrogradation is in aspect to one of its dispositors, and that dispositor is dignified. The rendered planet, which is the debilitated one, benefits from the dignity of its dispositor, and so loses some of the effect of its debility.

i While not relevant to this story, it’s worth mentioning that there was a considerable environmental scandal involved with natural gas that is not generally known nowadays in the USA. Prior to the 1930’s many farms were largely energy independent for such things as pumping water and irrigation as a result of the use of windmills and watermills. During the Depression, a number of natural gas companies (including NNGC) got together and created a network of natural gas pipelines. However, their work (and profits) would have been for naught had it not been for government regulation effectively destroying the self-sufficiency of the farmers, so that they would become natural gas consumers.

iv The Oil Daily, August 17, 1999 v49 i157

vi Source is birth certificate in hand Judy Johns: see full source listing at http://www.astrodatabank.com/NM/LayKenneth.htm

vii From the Astro-Life group on Yahoo: donnalyn27 obtained the time that the Enron bankruptcy was filed. The bankruptcy petition for Enron Corp. was filed electronically at 4:56 a.m. EST on December 2, 2001 in New York, NY. It actually was the second of several related filings. The first occurred at 4:28 a.m. But the 4:56 a.m. filing was for the main company, and is the case number that all the filings are being administered under.

“I obtained this information by talking to the paralegal at the law firm that filed the cases. She was able to obtain the times from the records in her computer.”

Fate and Free Will

Copyright 1997 J. Lee Lehman
I have a friend who has a multiple murderer as an astro-twin. This is exactly the sort of story which goes over big in the bar at an astrological conference. However, bragging rights aside, our normal inclination would be to find lessons in the differential house placements, and then hum a few bars of “There but for fortune, go you and I.” However, I propose that we might prefer to approach this differently: by focusing on their similarities, rather than their differences.


Consider a moment in time. My friend is enraged at her partner. Now: how many of us can honestly say we’ve never been enraged? Fury, hatred, aggravation – these are all universal emotions. The vast majority of the time, were someone to assert to not having experienced any one of these, I would conclude that they are either lying, deluded, repressed, or sheltered! So, rage is a virtually universal, if not common emotion.

Add a component. She has her partner in the sight of her gun. Now, not all of us choose to have a firearm around. Why have a gun? Fear, machismo, protection, vocational necessity, too many crime videos. Whatever the particular reason, the presence of the gun means that violence against others, whether in self defense or not, has been contemplated previously. And not only has it been contemplated, it has been taken seriously enough to spend the time and money to purchase it, and possibly to train in its use.

What happens? She thinks about it. She realizes that, were she to kill him, she would only have to go through another life with him. Maybe (probably?) she’d serve time, maybe even be executed. At any rate, she decides it’s not worth it, and puts the gun down.

And her astro twin? At much the same time, he kills someone. Did he think about it, or just act on impulse? We’ll never know.

When we examine the charts, we most likely will discover that both are “bad,” or at least have “bad” elements. However, we can also observe that neither one had to give in to desire. To err is human, and so is being led into temptation. However, the solution to a “bad” chart or a “bad” aspect is not to say, “next lifetime!”

A classical reading focuses as much on weaknesses as strengths. Frankly, moderns are so used to pretending the weaknesses don’t exist, that negatives have become almost taboo. The classicist would respond that the unexamined weakness of today too rapidly becomes the perpetrator tomorrow. And this is not too far from the position of the Jungian astrologer/psychologist who would argue that the unexamined shadow can take over the whole show.

Therefore, before you dismiss the strong sentiments you might find here, consider that the purpose of this kind of delineation can be therapeutic, just as a cold shower can be therapeutic. So be aware, as seemingly shocking words like “evil” may surface, that it is our belief that no chart must be lived out as unmitigated disaster – even if the odds are wildly stacked against the Native.

The Influence of Relocation: A Baseball Model

Copyright 1995, 1997 J. Lee Lehman

One of the major lifestyle changes of the 20th Century has been the considerable increase in voluntary relocation. Of course, war, famine and plague have historically resulted in massive relocations of entire populations. However, as the technology of transportation has improved, many individuals and small family units relocate frequently, often on a whim. Until recently, it was automatically assumed that the natal chart was adequate for predictive purposes. Within the 20th Century, this idea has been questioned. This has happened on several fronts. First, there has been much discussion of the coordinates to use for solar returns: the birth, residence, or actual location at the time of the solar return. Second, a debate has ensued about which coordinates to use for a horary question: those of the person asking the question, or those of the astrologer answering it. The latter only could become a question when the technology for simultaneous communication over a distance became possible. The third development is the rise of locational astrology. There are three major types of locational astrology. The most widely used method, and the oldest, is to simply take the birth chart and recompute it for the relocated coordinates, leaving the date, time, and time zone intact. This produces a chart with new house cusps. The second is what is now generally known as Astro*Carto*Graphy, a system based on right ascension, popularized by Jim Lewis, but evidently developed by Brigadier Firebrace.(1) The third is the relocation azimuth system, also known as local space, proposed by Michael Erlewine, and popularized by Steve Cozzi.(2) There is some interesting anecdotal evidence to support all three systems. Beyond the question of whether these systems work at all, the question that we put here is, how important are any of them, compared to the natal chart? Essentially, if they prove important, then provision may need to be made for using a relocated chart for any desired electional work. How do we test relocation? There is actually a wonderful system for testing this very thing: baseball statistics. We have virtually complete statistics for individual players going back to 1875. Since players are often traded to different teams during the course of their careers, we should be able to track performance before and after the trade. This has the advantage of not even requiring birth data! Why? It is possible to set up a model for testing relocation which doesn’t require birth data. This can be done as follows. If we assign a cut-off point in mileage – in this case, we used 900 miles – and compare trades where the team city-to-city distance was over or under 900 miles, then if any of the systems of astro-location produced significant effects, it would follow that a greater effect should be discernible with trades of a greater geographical distance. This is because all of the systems show a difference between natal and relocated chart that increases as the distance increases from the birth location. In other words, the greater the distance between the two team’s home cities, the greater the relocational effect, and thus, the greater change in job performance should be. How do we measure performance? There is an entire branch of statistics known as sabermetrics which is devoted to baseball statistics. But our purpose here is not to rate the relative merits of Ty Cobb and Babe Ruth as hitters against left handed pitchers with two outs. Therefore we can keep it simple. I took the deviation of the batting average in any one year from the lifetime average in the case of the hitters, and yearly deviation for lifetime Earned Run Average (ERA) in the case of the pitchers. The reason for studying deviation from a lifetime average is that we are interested in relative performance for a particular year. By invoking an analysis tool which simply calculates the standard deviation from these deviations, we have captured the amount of variance from year-to-year regardless of whether the player has a better year or a worse year, in other words, the deviation is summed as a square, so a -4 does not cancel a +4 the next year. This is necessary because we are not attempting to predict whether a particular player should do better in the new location, because we are not invoking an astrological model directly to study it. What we are attempting to characterize is the magnitude of the change, not the direction of it. As I considered how to design the study, several factors stood out. The first is that there is some astrological opinion that it takes a few years to adjust to a location. The second is the astrological consideration that we are actually mixing a couple phenomena in this model. When a player is traded, not only is the new location different, so is the team. Teams have charts, and so do leagues. Therefore, I also collected other data: whether a trade was between leagues, and whether an entire team relocated, as when the Boston Braves moved to Milwaukee, and the Milwaukee Braves moved to Atlanta, or when the Brooklyn Dodgers moved to Los Angeles, or the New York Giants to San Francisco. The third factor is a bit of baseball wisdom: trades during the season may work differently than trades between seasons, when the player has the time to adjust to the new team and players at Spring Training. Taking these factors into consideration, I established the following model.


Conditions for Inclusion

  • Player career 1875 – 1992 inclusive
  • Player must have played for first team for at least 3 years.
  • Only trades that took place between seasons are included.
  • Player must have played for second team for at least 3 years.

I took the statistical information from Total Baseball.(3) The counts of hitters and pitchers who matched the above criteria are shown in Tables One and Two.


Table One. Hitters who match the model criteria by category.

Total: 596

Team relocation: 14

League switch: 95

Less than 900 mi: 398

More than 900 mi: 198


Table two. Pitchers who match the model criteria by category.

Total: 283

Team relocation: 11

League switch: 83

Less than 900 mi: 175

More than 900 mi: 108


The results in tabulating standard deviation for pitchers and hitters is given in Tables 3 and 4, and the same results are presented graphically in Figures 1 and 2. Notice that I am not applying any statistical tests to these results. It would be inappropriate. Statistical tests of significance are a measure of the probability that a given result is a result of a particular sample really representing a different population from the “population as a whole.” This is a complete data set of all the players who match my criteria. Thus, the question would be, “different from what?” Accordingly, we can simply study the results, and in fifty years or so, see whether the results obtained through 1992 still hold up through 2042: if there still is professional baseball! There is no clear pattern before and after the trade for each mileage group. In every case except the third year after relocation, the group comprising the players whose team relocated shows a distinctly lower variance. How do we interpret this? The players on the relocating team are a different set of players from the rest because they were not traded. Thus, the fact that they show less variation from their own averages in these years simply supports the hypothesis that players that play consistently are less likely to be traded. The fact that there is a peak in deviation three years after the team relocation may suggest that there is a relocation effect that produces a crisis in the third year. However, this hypothesis is not supported by the pitchers. The performance of the pitchers is fairly flat, except for the fifth year after trade. We may speculate that this shows that pitchers are traded when the trading team sees something “wrong,” and if this is the case, by the fifth year that pitcher is either ready to become a star in the new place, or retire! Thus, we see little evidence for a strong relocation effect in a measurement of job performance in either the hitters or the pitchers. Thus, we are probably justified in minimizing the need to work with a relocated chart as an indicator of everyday performance and possibility. This does not negate all possible meanings to relocation analysis. Many of us who have had the experience of traveling to other places have directly experienced the relocation effect. However, this study does question whether the intuitively, spiritually or psychologically experienced difference between places translates into job performance. It may not.

1. Firebrace, Brigadier R.C. “The Cancer Ingress.” Spica 1(1): 37-39.

2. Cozzi, Steve. 1988. Planets in Locality. Exploring Local Space Astrology. Llewellyn Publications: St. Paul, MN.

3. Thorn, John & Pete Palmer. 1993. Total Baseball. Third Edition. Harper Perennial: New York.

The Basis of Rulerships

Copyright 1991 J. Lee Lehman, Ph.D.

The concept of rulerships, as we have inherited it, has actually included two discrete elements:

  • sign rulerships, including the five essential dignities of rulership, exaltation, triplicity, term and face, as well as mutual reception,
  • natural rulerships, the attribution of a thing to rulership by a sign, planet, or house.

From a classical standpoint, there is little controversy about sign rulerships, except for some variation in triplicity rulership, and two discrete sets of terms (the so-called Chaldean and Egyptian terms). Many modern astrologers (i.e., from the 19th Century onwards) have attempted, with varying degrees of success to integrate the three trans-Saturnian Planets into the sign and exaltation rulerships, while ignoring the existence of the other three.

Whether classical or modern, there has been an almost universal agreement that the trans-Saturnian Planets can be natural rulers. The controversy (which is not necessarily a split between classical versus modern) has been the logic for assigning these natural rulerships.

The modern assumption (backed by a certain amount of classical philosophy if not evidence) has been that rulerships should be assigned based on the Doctrine of Affinities. The natural ruler of an object should be that planet, sign, or house most like that object. (This is the philosophical justification for the modern Mars=Aries=First House concept: that Mars is the planet most like Aries, and Mars is the planet most like the First House. However, this Doctrine was not evoked classically to support this simplified equation, which violated the house cosignificators in any case.)

Unfortunately, astrological works dating from the Seventeenth Century and earlier – what we may call the Classical, or Neo-classical Period – are not long on the explanation of the method of assigning rulerships.

We do know that rulerships were assigned, and continue to be assigned, right up to the present moment. The purpose of this paper is to examine how this process was really done in the classical period, in order to give us insights into what to do today. To accomplish this, I have selected a specific subject area: plants. While this may seem a bit obscure, plants are an ideal subject for study because they have a long and fairly well documented place in astrological history through the frequent publication of herbals, which were vastly popular books listing plants, their medical uses, and of course, their astrological affinities. We should remember that, up to the Seventeenth Century, it would have been almost unthinkable for a medical diagnosis to be given without adequate astrological training. Even the great Fourteenth Century critic of astrology, Nicole Oresme, granted the efficacy of medical and meteorological uses of astrology.

I have already treated the specifics of one particular herbal, namely Culpeper’s, at length in my book Essential Dignities. What I would like to do here is to compare Culpeper’s rulerships with three other sources:

al-Biruni, representing Arabic astrology from the Medieval Period,

Claude Dariot, a French physician of the Sixteenth Century, whose book on horary in its English translation was a strong influence on – not to mention direct source for – William Lilly, and

William Lilly, the master par excellence of horary technique, whose work Christian Astrology has certainly been the most influential book on horary ever written.

I should mention that I was limited in the available possbilities for Seventeenth Century sources by the fact that Lilly was the only one to list enough different plants to be useful: for example, John Partridge’s Vade Mecum only gives two plants, scarcely enough for consideration.

The number of plants taken from each source is shown in Table One. Naturally, given the fact that Culpeper’s was the only herbal in the group, Culpeper listed more different plants.


Table One. Number of plants mentioned in different sources.

                  al-Biruni            58
                  Dariot              130
                  Lilly               161
                  Culpeper            394

Unfortunately, there was not as much overlap as I would have liked between the sources, with the greatest overlap being between Dariot and Lilly, not surprising since Lilly quoted Dariot extensively throughout Christian Astrology. I have summarized those cases of overlap in Table Two, which shows whether the different sources agreed or disagreed with the rulerships for a given plant.


Table Two. Agreement between Sources. A = al-Biruni, C = Culpeper, D = Dariot, L = Lilly.

        Combination              Agreement           Disagreement
        C - L                       14                   40
        D - C                        2                   30
        A - C                        4                   10
        D - L                       88                    4
        D - A                        1                   10
        L - A                        4                   14
        D - C - L                   24                   n/a
        A - D - L                    6                   n/a
        A - D - C - L                2                   n/a

The table shows clearly that there was little agreement between any of the sources except Dariot and Lilly! What does this then say about plant rulerships? To begin to sort out this intriguing question, let us examine the cases of strong agreement. These are shown in Table Three.

Many of the plants given in these sources are not ones which are especially familiar to us. Most of the plants in the Table, however, are immediately recognizable, being primarily food plants, spices or poisons. These plants have rulerships assigned which are part of readily identifiable properties: sharp taste in the case of Mars, for example.


Table Three. Examples of Agreement.

  Borage         Ju   D-C-L     Peaches             Ve   D-C-L
                                                    Ju   A
        
  Carduus        Ma   D-C-L     Plums               Ve   D-C-L
       
  Garlic         Ma   A-D-C-L   Poppy               Mo   D-C-L
                                                    Sa   D-L
        
  Hemlock        Sa   D-C-L     Pumpkin             Mo   D-C-L
                 Ma   D-L
        
  Leeks          Ma   A-D-L     Radish              Ma   A-D-L
        
  Lettuce        Mo   D-C-L     Rose                Ve   D-C-L
                                                    Ma   A
      
  Melon          Mo   A-D-L     Rosemary            Su   D-C-L
        
  Mustard        Ma   A-D-C-L   Shepherd's Purse    Sa   D-C-L
        
  Nettle         Ma   D-C-L     Sycamore            Ve   D-C-L
        
  Nightshade     Sa   D-C-L     Vines               Su   D-C-L
        
  Onions         Ma   A-D-C-L   Wheat               Ju   A-D-L

You may note in examining the Table that there are no cases of high agreement among Mercury-ruled plants. This is especially interesting because the classical descriptions of Mercury generally include the statement that Mercury takes on the coloration of other planets with which it associates, and also common words applied to Mercury are mixed and complex. It thus appears that quicksilver alludes even the astrologers! One may also note, that a rose, by any other name may smell as sweet, but if, like al-Biruni, you are concerned with thorns, then it is Mars-ruled!

I have already shown in Essential Dignities that there was a strong correlation in Culpeper between the medicinal use of the plant and the rulership Culpeper assigned. (Three quarters of the Jupiter-ruled plants had medicinal properties thought to be useful in treating Jupiter-ruled diseases.) The other three require different explanations.

One thing very clear in the study of the history of herbals – as well as botany in general – is that the flora present in al-Biruni’s location was certainly different from that of England: there are several floral groups in between. Thus, although al- Biruni may be translated to use the same name as our Sixteenth and Seventeenth Century sources, the likelihood that he was referring to the same genus and species is fairly remote, except for cultivated plants. Thus, the discrepancies between al-Biruni and the other three are quite understandable.

Dariot and Lilly were part of the same tradition, of course. Lilly relied on Dariot very heavily, and the few disagreements between them may be understood to be revisionism by Lilly. However, Dariot and Lilly were primarily classical astrologers, and thus, more influenced by the Doctrine of Affinities than Culpeper, who was primarily a pragmatist.

What evidence do we have for the idea that astrologers of a non-medical bent used physical appearance as a basis for rulership ascription? We have the texts themselves. Table Four gives statements by al-Biruni, Dariot, and Lilly about the kinds of plants which are ruled by the various planets. With few exceptions, these descriptions fit well with our concepts for the general meaning of the planets.


Table Four. Physical Descriptions of Rulerships.

        "Bitter taste"                     Ma   Lilly, page 54
        "Bitter trees"                     Ma   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Colored herbs"                    Ve   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Complex flavors"                  Me   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Fruits with rough skins"          Ma   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Prickly trees"                    Ma   Dariot, page 21
        "Pungent trees"                    Ma   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Pungent/evil-smelling trees"      Me   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Savoury Herbs"                    Ve   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Shade trees"                      Mo   Lilly, page 82
        "Smooth-leaved plants"             Ve   Lilly, page 75
        "Sweet-smelling flowers"           Ve   al-Biruni, page 244
        "Thick, juicy leaves"              Mo   Dariot, page 27
        "Used for divination"              Me   Dariot, page 26

I have already demonstrated in Essential Dignities that there was little relationship between the physical appearance of the plant and the natural rulership given in Culpeper’s work. The lists by Dariot and Lilly show much greater adherence to the Doctrine of Affinities.

We are thus confronted with an interesting paradox: we can accept Culpeper’s rulerships – and consider medicinal uses primary – or we can accept Dariot/Lilly’s lists – and consider physical appearance as primary. Or we can throw the whole thing out, of course! Since this began as a case study of rulerships, with plants as the example, we may note that the medical option may be something intrinsic to plants, and not a general consideration. Thus, we may take the easy route out, and state that medical rulerships may be the special case here, with the Doctrine of Affinities the general case. Thus, we may accept Culpeper’s rulerships when dealing with a medical situation, and the Dariot/Lilly rulerships when dealing with a general one.

This still leaves one question unanswered: what to do with the trans-Saturnian planets. To be sure, one part of the answer has already been provided: assign natural rulerships based on the Doctrine of Affinities. This, however, leaves two problems. The first is that the understanding of these three planets has become so intertwined with the Planet=Sign=House equation that many astrologers are unable to give coherent definitions of these three bodies apart from their alleged equations. (One seldom sees serious discussion about how the suddenness associated with Uranus is supposed to correlate with the fixed nature of Aquarius, or the revolutionary aspect of Pluto is supposed to fit in with equally fixed Scorpio.) The second problem is really a question: should natural rulerships already assigned to the Chaldean Planets be reassigned to Uranus, Neptune and Pluto?

One theory that has been put forth concerning the trans-Saturnian Planets is that they represent higher octaves of inner planets: Uranus is the higher octave of Mercury, Neptune of Venus, and Pluto of Mars. If this is so, then we should see a shift of natural rulerships from the three Inner Planets to the three Outer Planets when natural rulerships have been reassigned. I already dealt with this issue; Table Five is from my discussion in Essential Dignities, in which I compared rulerships assigned by Rex Bills to those given by al-Biruni. The Table shows only those cases where natural rulerships were given by Bills to the Outer Planets that had been given in al-Biruni; thus, if the “higher octave” theory is true, then there should be a preponderance of Mercury shifts in the case of Uranus, Venus shifts to Neptune, and Mars shifts to Pluto. We do not observe this. What we do observe in the case of Neptune and Pluto is a noticeable shift from Saturn; thus, the old Great Malefic is being seen to share duties with two New Malefics.


Table Five. Attributions in al-Biruni (for the Lights and Mercury through Saturn) which are ruled by Uranus, Neptune, or Pluto in Bills.

        Planet         Uranus         Neptune        Pluto
        Sun              4              1              1 
        Moon             0              5              1
        Mercury          1              2              1
        Venus            1              4              4
        Mars             4              0              5
        Jupiter          2              0              2
        Saturn           2              7              6

This Table raises perhaps more questions in addition to providing evidence against the higher octave hypothesis. On the one hand, the shift in words from the Moon and Venus to Neptune is intuitively gratifying. On the other, in modern rulership tables, Neptune has replaced Jupiter as the ruler of Pisces: if there were in fact some evidence that the classical astrologers in any way supported the Planet=Sign=House hypothesis, we would expect a switch in words from Jupiter to Neptune. There is none. In the same vein, there is a much lower switch from Saturn to Uranus than either Saturn to Neptune or Saturn to Pluto; the only place where somewhat of a case may be made is with Pluto, though the amount of interchange from Saturn and Venus is equally interesting. Clearly, the patterns here do not support the Planet=Sign=House hypothesis either.

While a tantalizingly handy reference, one of the problems with working with Bills as a source is that we know that comparatively few of the rulership assignments originated with Bills, but Bills gave no sources for any specific attribution. This, alas, is the pattern with other modern references such as Munkasey’s recent volumes: without knowing the source, the rulerships are difficult to evaluate. We have already seen with the split between medical and affinity usage in the plant rulerships example that source is important for understanding the rulerships: it may be crucial, in fact, to selecting the right rulership for the situation of the moment.

We can only stress the importance of understanding the rationale behind any author’s rulership assignations, so that the astrologer is not led to an incorrect delineation. It is also crucial that we understand the origin of natural rulerships, and not become slaves to any listing which may be at hand.

References

al-Biruni, Abu’l-Rayhan Muhammed ibn Ahmad. 1029. The Book of Instruction in the Elements of Astrology, translated by R. Ramsay Wright, Luzac & Co.: London, 1934.

Coopland, G. W. 1952. Nicole Oresme and the Astrologers. Liverpool University Press: Liverpool.

Culpeper, Nicolas. 1655. Astroloigical Judgment of Diseases from the Decumbiture of the Sick. Reprinted 1959 by the American Federation of Astrologers: Tempe, AZ.

Lehman, J. Lee. 1989. Essential Dignities. Whitford Press: West Chester, PA.

Lilly, William. 1647. Christian Astrology. Reprinted in 1985 by Regulus: London.

Munkasey, Michael. 1991. Unleashing the Power of Midpoints. ACS Publications: San Diego.

Munkasey, Michael. 1991. The Concept Dictionary. ACS Publications: San Diego.

Partridge, John. 1679. Mikropanastron, or an Astrological Vade Mecum, briefly Teaching the whole Art of Astrology – viz., Questions, Nativities, with all its parts, and the whole Doctrine of Elections never so comprised nor compiled before, &c. William Bromwich: London.

Potterson, David, ed. 1983. Culpeper’s Color Herbal. Sterling Publishing Co.: New York.