Lunar Eclipses 1900-2050

These lunar eclipse positions are calculated for the exact opposition of the Sun and the Moon in tropical longitude. This is not the eclipse maxima. Computed by Solar Fire Gold (version 7).


These lunar eclipse positions are calculated for the exact opposition of the Sun and the Moon in tropical longitude. This is not the eclipse maxima. Computed by Solar Fire Gold (version 7).

Lunar Eclipses 1900 ns – 2050

Set for Washington, DC 38°N53’42”, 77°W02’12”

Date Type House Longitude Time Time Type

Jun 12 1900NS Lunar (3) 21°Sg38’ 10:38:35 pm EST

Dec 06 1900NS Lunar (8) 13°Ge53’ 05:38:07 am EST

May 03 1901 Lunar (1) 12°Sc35’ 01:18:43 pm EST

Oct 27 1901 Lunar (7) 03°Ta30’ 10:06:12 am EST

Apr 22 1902 Lunar (1) 01°Sc41’ 01:49:29 pm EST

Oct 17 1902 Lunar (7) 22°Ar56’ 01:01:04 am EST

Apr 11 1903 Lunar (1) 20°Li55’ 07:18:14 pm EST

Oct 06 1903 Lunar (6) 12°Ar11’ 10:23:31 am EST

Mar 01 1904 Lunar (11) 11°Vi06’ 09:48:14 pm EST

Mar 31 1904 Lunar (12) 10°Li22’ 07:44:14 am EST

Sep 24 1904 Lunar (6) 01°Ar13’ 12:49:42 pm EST

Feb 19 1905 Lunar (11) 00°Vi28’ 01:51:47 pm EST

Aug 14 1905 Lunar (4) 21°Aq37’ 10:31:19 pm EST

Feb 09 1906 Lunar (10) 19°Le40’ 02:45:32 am EST

Aug 04 1906 Lunar (4) 11°Aq12’ 07:59:34 am EST

Jan 29 1907 Lunar (10) 08°Le31’ 08:44:56 am EST

Jul 24 1907 Lunar (4) 01°Aq04’ 11:29:20 pm EST

Jan 18 1908 Lunar (10) 27°Cn04’ 08:36:44 am EST

Jun 14 1908 Lunar (3) 23°Sg03’ 08:55:03 am EST

Jul 13 1908 Lunar (3) 21°Cp02’ 04:47:43 pm EST

Dec 07 1908 Lunar (8) 15°Ge25’ 04:43:56 pm EST

Jun 03 1909 Lunar (2) 12°Sg46’ 08:24:28 pm EST

Nov 27 1909 Lunar (8) 04°Ge29’ 03:51:40 am EST

May 24 1910 Lunar (2) 02°Sg09’ 00:38:47 am EST

Nov 16 1910 Lunar (8) 23°Ta47’ 07:24:51 pm EST

May 13 1911 Lunar (2) 21°Sc21’ 01:09:27 am EST

Nov 06 1911 Lunar (7) 13°Ta07’ 10:47:55 am EST

Apr 01 1912 Lunar (12) 11°Li48’ 05:04:18 pm EST

Sep 26 1912 Lunar (6) 03°Ar00’ 06:33:55 am EST

Mar 22 1913 Lunar (12) 01°Li15’ 06:55:50 am EST

Sep 15 1913 Lunar (5) 22°Pi03’ 07:45:31 am EST

Mar 11 1914 Lunar (11) 20°Vi45’ 11:18:12 pm EST

Sep 04 1914 Lunar (5) 11°Pi10’ 09:00:48 am EST

Jan 30 1915 Lunar (10) 10°Le14’ 11:40:53 pm EST

Mar 01 1915 Lunar (11) 10°Vi06’ 01:32:20 pm EST

Jul 26 1915 Lunar (4) 02°Aq25’ 07:10:41 am EST

Aug 24 1915 Lunar (5) 00°Pi37’ 04:40:03 pm EST

Jan 20 1916 Lunar (10) 28°Cn57’ 03:28:35 am EST

Jul 14 1916 Lunar (3) 22°Cp20’ 11:39:48 pm EST

Jan 08 1917 Lunar (9) 17°Cn29’ 02:41:33 am EST

Jul 04 1917 Lunar (3) 12°Cp17’ 04:40:12 pm EST

Dec 28 1917 Lunar (9) 06°Cn06’ 04:51:18 am EST

Jun 24 1918 Lunar (3) 02°Cp05’ 06:37:55 am EWT

Dec 17 1918 Lunar (9) 25°Ge03’ 02:17:07 pm EST

May 14 1919 Lunar (2) 23°Sc09’ 09:00:54 pm EWT

Nov 07 1919 Lunar (7) 14°Ta31’ 06:34:47 pm EST

May 02 1920 Lunar (1) 12°Sc19’ 08:46:53 pm EST

Oct 27 1920 Lunar (7) 03°Ta51’ 09:08:35 am EST

Apr 22 1921 Lunar (1) 01°Sc37’ 02:48:58 am EST

Oct 16 1921 Lunar (7) 23°Ar02’ 05:59:14 pm EST

Mar 13 1922 Lunar (11) 22°Vi06’ 06:13:58 am EST

Apr 11 1922 Lunar (1) 21°Li09’ 03:43:12 pm EST

Oct 05 1922 Lunar (6) 11°Ar59’ 07:57:58 pm EST

Mar 02 1923 Lunar (11) 11°Vi32’ 10:23:23 pm EST

Aug 26 1923 Lunar (5) 02°Pi09’ 05:29:11 am EST

Feb 20 1924 Lunar (11) 00°Vi45’ 11:07:02 am EST

Aug 14 1924 Lunar (4) 21°Aq43’ 03:18:51 pm EST

Feb 08 1925 Lunar (10) 19°Le39’ 04:48:55 pm EST

Aug 04 1925 Lunar (4) 11°Aq33’ 06:58:50 am EST

Jan 28 1926 Lunar (10) 08°Le13’ 04:35:09 pm EST

Jun 25 1926 Lunar (3) 03°Cp31’ 04:12:36 pm EST

Jul 25 1926 Lunar (4) 01°Aq30’ 00:13:10 am EST

Dec 19 1926 Lunar (9) 26°Ge35’ 01:08:38 am EST

Jun 15 1927 Lunar (3) 23°Sg14’ 03:19:10 am EST

Dec 08 1927 Lunar (8) 15°Ge38’ 12:31:50 pm EST

Jun 03 1928 Lunar (2) 12°Sg38’ 07:13:19 am EST

Nov 27 1928 Lunar (8) 04°Ge53’ 04:05:24 am EST

May 23 1929 Lunar (2) 01°Sg52’ 07:49:43 am EST

Nov 16 1929 Lunar (8) 24°Ta10’ 07:14:05 pm EST

Apr 13 1930 Lunar (1) 22°Li34’ 00:48:22 am EST

Oct 07 1930 Lunar (6) 13°Ar46’ 01:55:29 pm EST

Apr 02 1931 Lunar (12) 12°Li06’ 03:05:25 pm EST

Sep 26 1931 Lunar (6) 02°Ar45’ 02:44:50 pm EST

Mar 22 1932 Lunar (12) 01°Li40’ 07:37:19 am EST

Sep 14 1932 Lunar (5) 21°Pi48’ 04:05:59 pm EST

Feb 10 1933 Lunar (10) 21°Le21’ 08:00:25 am EST

Mar 11 1933 Lunar (11) 21°Vi05’ 09:45:36 pm EST

Aug 05 1933 Lunar (4) 12°Aq53’ 02:31:27 pm EST

Sep 04 1933 Lunar (5) 11°Pi12’ 00:04:18 am EST

Jan 30 1934 Lunar (10) 10°Le06’ 11:31:22 am EST

Jul 26 1934 Lunar (4) 02°Aq48’ 07:08:30 am EST

Jan 19 1935 Lunar (10) 28°Cn39’ 10:44:10 am EST

Jul 16 1935 Lunar (3) 22°Cp44’ 00:00:22 am EST

Jan 08 1936 Lunar (9) 17°Cn18’ 01:14:35 pm EST

Jul 04 1936 Lunar (3) 12°Cp31’ 12:34:26 pm EST

Dec 27 1936 Lunar (9) 06°Cn15’ 11:00:06 pm EST

May 25 1937 Lunar (2) 03°Sg40’ 02:37:34 am EST

Nov 18 1937 Lunar (8) 25°Ta34’ 03:09:30 am EST

May 14 1938 Lunar (2) 22°Sc53’ 03:38:55 am EST

Nov 07 1938 Lunar (7) 14°Ta51’ 05:23:21 pm EST

May 03 1939 Lunar (1) 12°Sc17’ 10:15:20 am EST

Oct 28 1939 Lunar (7) 03°Ta56’ 01:41:35 am EST

Mar 23 1940 Lunar (12) 03°Li01’ 02:33:14 pm EST

Apr 21 1940 Lunar (1) 01°Sc53’ 11:36:53 pm EST

Oct 16 1940 Lunar (7) 22°Ar49’ 03:14:56 am EST

Mar 13 1941 Lunar (11) 22°Vi30’ 06:46:42 am EST

Sep 05 1941 Lunar (5) 12°Pi44’ 12:35:54 pm EST

Mar 02 1942 Lunar (11) 11°Vi47’ 08:19:45 pm EWT

Aug 25 1942 Lunar (5) 02°Pi17’ 11:46:03 pm EWT

Feb 20 1943 Lunar (11) 00°Vi42’ 01:44:43 am EWT

Aug 15 1943 Lunar (4) 22°Aq05’ 03:33:56 pm EWT

Feb 09 1944 Lunar (10) 19°Le20’ 01:29:28 am EWT

Jul 06 1944 Lunar (3) 13°Cp57’ 00:26:39 am EWT

Aug 04 1944 Lunar (4) 11°Aq58’ 08:39:12 am EWT

Dec 29 1944 Lunar (9) 07°Cn47’ 10:38:04 am EWT

Jun 25 1945 Lunar (3) 03°Cp39’ 11:07:51 am EWT

Dec 18 1945 Lunar (9) 26°Ge49’ 09:17:21 pm EST

Jun 14 1946 Lunar (3) 23°Sg04’ 01:41:35 pm EST

Dec 08 1946 Lunar (8) 16°Ge03’ 12:51:57 pm EST

Jun 03 1947 Lunar (2) 12°Sg21’ 03:26:42 pm EDT

Nov 28 1947 Lunar (8) 05°Ge16’ 03:45:13 am EST

Apr 23 1948 Lunar (1) 03°Sc17’ 08:28:16 am EST

Oct 17 1948 Lunar (7) 24°Ar37’ 09:23:24 pm EST

Apr 12 1949 Lunar (1) 22°Li54’ 11:08:24 pm EST

Oct 6 1949 Lunar (6) 13°Ar30’ 09:52:33 pm EST

Apr 2 1950 Lunar (12) 12°Li32’ 03:48:47 pm EST

Sep 25 1950 Lunar (6) 02°Ar31’ 11:21:25 pm EST

Feb 21 1951 Lunar (11) 02°Vi26’ 04:12:10 pm EST

Mar 23 1951 Lunar (12) 01°Li59’ 05:49:46 am EST

Aug 16 1951 Lunar (4) 23°Aq24’ 10:59:25 pm EDT

Sep 15 1951 Lunar (5) 21°Pi51’ 08:38:21 am EDT

Feb 10 1952 Lunar (10) 21°Le13’ 07:28:10 pm EST

Aug 05 1952 Lunar (4) 13°Aq17’ 03:39:59 pm EDT

Jan 29 1953 Lunar (10) 09°Le47’ 06:44:10 pm EST

Jul 26 1953 Lunar (4) 03°Aq12’ 08:20:35 am EDT

Jan 18 1954 Lunar (10) 28°Cn29’ 09:36:45 pm EST

Jul 15 1954 Lunar (3) 22°Cp57’ 08:29:01 pm EDT

Jan 08 1955 Lunar (9) 17°Cn28’ 07:44:05 am EST

Jun 05 1955 Lunar (2) 14°Sg08’ 10:08:23 am EDT

Nov 29 1955 Lunar (8) 06°Ge41’ 11:49:48 am EST

May 24 1956 Lunar (2) 03°Sg24’ 11:25:50 am EDT

Nov 18 1956 Lunar (8) 25°Ta55’ 01:44:35 am EST

May 13 1957 Lunar (2) 22°Sc52’ 06:34:14 pm EDT

Nov 07 1957 Lunar (7) 14°Ta55’ 09:31:58 am EST

Apr 03 1958 Lunar (12) 13°Li52’ 10:44:45 pm EST

May 03 1958 Lunar (1) 12°Sc33’ 08:23:15 am EDT

Oct 27 1958 Lunar (7) 03°Ta43’ 10:40:59 am EST

Mar 24 1959 Lunar (12) 03°Li25’ 03:02:24 pm EST

Sep 16 1959 Lunar (5) 23°Pi23’ 08:51:35 pm EDT

Mar 13 1960 Lunar (11) 22°Vi46’ 03:25:47 am EST

Sep 05 1960 Lunar (5) 12°Pi52’ 07:18:43 am EDT

Mar 02 1961 Lunar (11) 11°Vi44’ 08:34:38 am EST

Aug 25 1961 Lunar (5) 02°Pi39’ 11:13:15 pm EDT

Feb 19 1962 Lunar (11) 00°Vi25’ 08:17:53 am EST

Jul 17 1962 Lunar (4) 24°Cp24’ 07:40:31 am EDT

Aug 15 1962 Lunar (4) 22°Aq30’ 04:09:10 pm EDT

Jan 09 1963 Lunar (9) 18°Cn58’ 06:08:06 pm EST

Jul 06 1963 Lunar (3) 14°Cp05’ 05:55:23 pm EDT

Dec 30 1963 Lunar (9) 08°Cn01’ 06:03:50 am EST

Jun 24 1964 Lunar (3) 03°Cp30’ 09:07:59 pm EDT

Dec 18 1964 Lunar (9) 27°Ge14’ 09:41:11 pm EST

Jun 13 1965 Lunar (3) 22°Sg48’ 09:59:18 pm EDT

Dec 08 1965 Lunar (8) 16°Ge25’ 12:21:07 pm EST

May 04 1966 Lunar (1) 13°Sc55’ 05:00:27 pm EDT

Oct 29 1966 Lunar (7) 05°Ta32’ 06:00:01 am EDT

Apr 24 1967 Lunar (1) 03°Sc37’ 07:03:23 am EST

Oct 18 1967 Lunar (7) 24°Ar20’ 06:10:46 am EDT

Apr 12 1968 Lunar (1) 23°Li19’ 11:51:38 pm EST

Oct 06 1968 Lunar (6) 13°Ar16’ 07:46:05 am EDT

Apr 02 1969 Lunar (12) 12°Li50’ 01:44:52 pm EST

Aug 27 1969 Lunar (5) 03°Pi58’ 06:32:23 am EDT

Sep 25 1969 Lunar (6) 02°Ar35’ 04:20:50 pm EDT

Feb 21 1970 Lunar (11) 02°Vi17’ 03:18:40 am EST

Aug 16 1970 Lunar (4) 23°Aq48’ 11:15:20 pm EDT

Feb 10 1971 Lunar (10) 20°Le55’ 02:41:22 am EST

Aug 06 1971 Lunar (4) 13°Aq41’ 03:42:20 pm EDT

Jan 30 1972 Lunar (10) 09°Le39’ 05:58:10 am EST

Jul 26 1972 Lunar (4) 03°Aq23’ 03:23:32 am EDT

Jan 18 1973 Lunar (10) 28°Cn40’ 04:28:24 pm EST

Jun 15 1973 Lunar (3) 24°Sg34’ 04:34:33 pm EDT

Jul 15 1973 Lunar (3) 22°Cp50’ 07:55:53 am EDT

Dec 09 1973 Lunar (9) 17°Ge51’ 08:34:36 pm EST

Jun 04 1974 Lunar (2) 13°Sg53’ 06:09:37 pm EDT

Nov 29 1974 Lunar (8) 07°Ge01’ 10:10:03 am EST

May 25 1975 Lunar (2) 03°Sg25’ 01:50:34 am EDT

Nov 18 1975 Lunar (8) 25°Ta57’ 05:28:14 pm EST

May 13 1976 Lunar (2) 23°Sc09’ 04:04:02 pm EDT

Nov 06 1976 Lunar (7) 14°Ta40’ 06:14:34 pm EST

Apr 03 1977 Lunar (12) 14°Li16’ 11:08:52 pm EST

Sep 27 1977 Lunar (6) 04°Ar07’ 04:17:23 am EDT

Mar 24 1978 Lunar (12) 03°Li39’ 11:19:58 am EST

Sep 16 1978 Lunar (5) 23°Pi33’ 03:01:05 pm EDT

Mar 13 1979 Lunar (11) 22°Vi41’ 04:14:15 pm EST

Sep 06 1979 Lunar (5) 13°Pi15’ 06:58:34 am EDT

Mar 01 1980 Lunar (11) 11°Vi26’ 03:59:38 pm EST

Jul 27 1980 Lunar (4) 04°Aq51’ 02:53:37 pm EDT

Aug 25 1980 Lunar (5) 03°Pi03’ 11:42:12 pm EDT

Jan 20 1981 Lunar (10) 00°Le10’ 02:38:56 am EST

Jul 17 1981 Lunar (4) 24°Cp30’ 00:38:49 am EDT

Jan 09 1982 Lunar (9) 19°Cn14’ 02:52:49 pm EST

Jul 06 1982 Lunar (3) 13°Cp54’ 03:31:36 am EDT

Dec 30 1982 Lunar (9) 08°Cn26’ 06:32:35 am EST

Jun 25 1983 Lunar (3) 03°Cp14’ 04:31:45 am EDT

Dec 19 1983 Lunar (9) 27°Ge36’ 09:00:16 pm EST

May 15 1984 Lunar (2) 24°Sc31’ 00:28:35 am EDT

Jun 13 1984 Lunar (3) 22°Sg44’ 10:41:47 am EDT

Nov 08 1984 Lunar (8) 16°Ta30’ 12:42:36 pm EST

May 04 1985 Lunar (1) 14°Sc16’ 03:52:48 pm EDT

Oct 28 1985 Lunar (7) 05°Ta14’ 12:37:32 pm EST

Apr 24 1986 Lunar (1) 04°Sc02’ 07:46:21 am EST

Oct 17 1986 Lunar (7) 24°Ar07’ 03:21:38 pm EDT

Apr 13 1987 Lunar (1) 23°Li37’ 10:30:58 pm EDT

Oct 07 1987 Lunar (6) 13°Ar22’ 00:12:15 am EDT

Mar 03 1988 Lunar (11) 13°Vi17’ 11:01:04 am EST

Aug 27 1988 Lunar (5) 04°Pi22’ 06:55:51 am EDT

Feb 20 1989 Lunar (11) 01°Vi58’ 10:31:51 am EST

Aug 16 1989 Lunar (4) 24°Aq12’ 11:06:36 pm EDT

Feb 09 1990 Lunar (10) 20°Le46’ 02:15:44 pm EST

Aug 06 1990 Lunar (4) 13°Aq51’ 10:19:25 am EDT

Jan 30 1991 Lunar (10) 09°Le50’ 01:09:42 am EST

Jun 26 1991 Lunar (3) 04°Cp59’ 10:58:25 pm EDT

Jul 26 1991 Lunar (4) 03°Aq16’ 02:24:21 pm EDT

Dec 21 1991 Lunar (9) 29°Ge02’ 05:23:11 am EST

Jun 15 1992 Lunar (3) 24°Sg20’ 00:49:44 am EDT

Dec 09 1992 Lunar (9) 18°Ge10’ 06:40:40 pm EST

Jun 04 1993 Lunar (2) 13°Sg54’ 09:02:12 am EDT

Nov 29 1993 Lunar (8) 07°Ge03’ 01:30:45 am EST

May 24 1994 Lunar (2) 03°Sg42’ 11:39:21 pm EDT

Nov 18 1994 Lunar (8) 25°Ta42’ 01:57:00 am EST

Apr 15 1995 Lunar (1) 25°Li03’ 08:08:11 am EDT

Oct 08 1995 Lunar (6) 14°Ar53’ 11:51:50 am EDT

Apr 03 1996 Lunar (12) 14°Li30’ 07:06:56 pm EST

Sep 26 1996 Lunar (6) 04°Ar16’ 10:50:46 pm EDT

Mar 23 1997 Lunar (12) 03°Li35’ 11:45:14 pm EST

Sep 16 1997 Lunar (5) 23°Pi56’ 02:50:29 pm EDT

Mar 12 1998 Lunar (11) 22°Vi23’ 11:34:09 pm EST

Aug 07 1998 Lunar (4) 15°Aq21’ 10:09:37 pm EDT

Sep 06 1998 Lunar (5) 13°Pi40’ 07:21:21 am EDT

Jan 31 1999 Lunar (10) 11°Le19’ 11:06:30 am EST

Jul 28 1999 Lunar (4) 04°Aq57’ 07:24:47 am EDT

Jan 20 2000 Lunar (10) 00°Le26’ 11:40:26 pm EST

Jul 16 2000 Lunar (4) 24°Cp19’ 09:55:13 am EDT

Jan 09 2001 Lunar (9) 19°Cn39’ 03:24:24 pm EST

Jul 05 2001 Lunar (3) 13°Cp38’ 11:03:46 am EDT

Dec 30 2001 Lunar (9) 08°Cn47’ 05:40:32 am EST

May 26 2002 Lunar (2) 05°Sg03’ 07:51:14 am EDT

Jun 24 2002 Lunar (3) 03°Cp11’ 05:42:21 pm EDT

Nov 19 2002 Lunar (8) 27°Ta32’ 08:33:39 pm EST

May 15 2003 Lunar (2) 24°Sc52’ 11:35:57 pm EDT

Nov 08 2003 Lunar (8) 16°Ta12’ 08:13:21 pm EST

May 04 2004 Lunar (1) 14°Sc41’ 04:33:26 pm EDT

Oct 27 2004 Lunar (7) 05°Ta02’ 11:07:22 pm EDT

Apr 24 2005 Lunar (1) 04°Sc19’ 06:06:28 am EDT

Oct 17 2005 Lunar (7) 24°Ar13’ 08:13:38 am EDT

Mar 14 2006 Lunar (11) 24°Vi14’ 06:35:26 pm EST

Sep 07 2006 Lunar (5) 15°Pi00’ 02:42:03 pm EDT

Mar 03 2007 Lunar (11) 12°Vi59’ 06:17:06 pm EST

Aug 28 2007 Lunar (5) 04°Pi45’ 06:35:05 am EDT

Feb 20 2008 Lunar (11) 01°Vi52’ 10:30:30 pm EST

Aug 16 2008 Lunar (4) 24°Aq21’ 05:16:27 pm EDT

Feb 09 2009 Lunar (10) 20°Le59’ 09:49:09 am EST

Jul 07 2009 Lunar (3) 15°Cp24’ 05:21:25 am EDT

Aug 05 2009 Lunar (4) 13°Aq43’ 08:54:52 pm EDT

Dec 31 2009 Lunar (9) 10°Cn14’ 02:12:45 pm EST

Jun 26 2010 Lunar (3) 04°Cp46’ 07:30:21 am EDT

Dec 21 2010 Lunar (9) 29°Ge20’ 03:13:27 am EST

Jun 15 2011 Lunar (3) 24°Sg23’ 04:13:34 pm EDT

Dec 10 2011 Lunar (9) 18°Ge10’ 09:36:22 am EST

Jun 04 2012 Lunar (2) 14°Sg13’ 07:11:33 am EDT

Nov 28 2012 Lunar (8) 06°Ge46’ 09:45:55 am EST

Apr 25 2013 Lunar (1) 05°Sc45’ 03:57:06 pm EDT

May 25 2013 Lunar (2) 04°Sg07’ 00:24:55 am EDT

Oct 18 2013 Lunar (7) 25°Ar45’ 07:37:39 pm EDT

Apr 15 2014 Lunar (1) 25°Li15’ 03:42:16 am EDT

Oct 08 2014 Lunar (6) 15°Ar05’ 06:50:34 am EDT

Apr 04 2015 Lunar (12) 14°Li23’ 08:05:31 am EDT

Sep 27 2015 Lunar (6) 04°Ar40’ 10:50:28 pm EDT

Mar 23 2016 Lunar (12) 03°Li17’ 08:00:46 am EDT

Aug 18 2016 Lunar (4) 25°Aq51’ 05:26:30 am EDT

Sep 16 2016 Lunar (5) 24°Pi20’ 03:05:02 pm EDT

Feb 10 2017 Lunar (10) 22°Le27’ 07:32:48 pm EST

Aug 07 2017 Lunar (4) 15°Aq25’ 02:10:32 pm EDT

Jan 31 2018 Lunar (10) 11°Le36’ 08:26:38 am EST

Jul 27 2018 Lunar (4) 04°Aq44’ 04:20:15 pm EDT

Jan 21 2019 Lunar (10) 00°Le51’ 00:15:57 am EST

Jul 16 2019 Lunar (4) 24°Cp04’ 05:38:05 pm EDT

Jan 10 2020 Lunar (9) 20°Cn00’ 02:21:09 pm EST

Jun 05 2020 Lunar (2) 15°Sg33’ 03:12:14 pm EDT

Jul 05 2020 Lunar (3) 13°Cp37’ 00:44:16 am EDT

Nov 30 2020 Lunar (8) 08°Ge38’ 04:29:32 am EST

May 26 2021 Lunar (2) 05°Sg25’ 06:13:42 am EST

Nov 19 2021 Lunar (8) 27°Ta14’ 03:57:17 am EST

May 15 2022 Lunar (2) 25°Sc17’ 11:13:57 pm EST

Nov 08 2022 Lunar (7) 16°Ta00’ 06:01:57 am EST

May 05 2023 Lunar (1) 14°Sc58’ 12:33:50 pm EST

Oct 28 2023 Lunar (7) 05°Ta09’ 03:23:49 pm EST

Mar 25 2024 Lunar (12) 05°Li07’ 02:00:04 am EST

Sep 17 2024 Lunar (5) 25°Pi40’ 09:34:13 pm EST

Mar 14 2025 Lunar (11) 23°Vi56’ 01:54:22 am EST

Sep 07 2025 Lunar (5) 15°Pi22’ 01:08:37 pm EST

Mar 30 2026 Lunar (11) 12°Vi53’ 06:37:35 am EST

Aug 27 2026 Lunar (5) 04°Pi54’ 11:18:14 pm EST

Feb 20 2027 Lunar (11) 02°Vi05’ 06:23:19 pm EST

Jul 18 2027 Lunar (4) 25°Cp48’ 10:44:36 am EST

Aug 17 2027 Lunar (4) 24°Aq11’ 02:28:22 am EST

Jan 11 2028 Lunar (9) 21°Cn27’ 11:02:44 pm EST

Jul 06 2028 Lunar (3) 15°Cp11’ 01:10:28 pm EST

Dec 31 2028 Lunar (9) 10°Cn32’ 11:48:10 am EST

Jun 25 2029 Lunar (3) 04°Cp49’ 10:21:58 pm EST

Dec 20 2029 Lunar (9) 29°Ge20’ 05:46:08 pm EST

Jun 15 2030 Lunar (3) 24°Sg42’ 01:40:37 pm EST

Dec 09 2030 Lunar (9) 17°Ge54’ 05:40:04 pm EST

May 06 2031 Lunar (2) 16°Sc24’ 10:39:27 pm EST

Jun 05 2031 Lunar (2) 14°Sg39’ 06:58:07 am EST

Oct 30 2031 Lunar (7) 06°Ta40’ 02:32:17 am EST

Apr 25 2032 Lunar (1) 05°Sc57’ 10:09:14 am EST

Oct 18 2032 Lunar (7) 25°Ar57’ 01:57:42 pm EST

Apr 14 2033 Lunar (1) 25°Li09’ 02:16:55 pm EST

Oct 08 2033 Lunar (6) 15°Ar29’ 05:57:41 am EST

Apr 03 2034 Lunar (12) 14°Li06’ 02:18:24 pm EST

Sep 27 2034 Lunar (6) 05°Ar04’ 09:56:20 pm EST

Feb 22 2035 Lunar (11) 03°Vi33’ 03:53:25 am EST

Aug 18 2035 Lunar (4) 25°Aq55’ 07:59:48 pm EST

Feb 11 2036 Lunar (10) 22°Le45’ 05:08:10 pm EST

Aug 06 2036 Lunar (4) 15°Aq12’ 09:48:25 pm EST

Jan 31 2037 Lunar (10) 12°Le02’ 09:03:36 am EST

Jul 26 2037 Lunar (4) 04°Aq29’ 11:14:36 pm EST

Jan 20 2038 Lunar (10) 01°Le11’ 10:59:23 pm EST

Jun 16 2038 Lunar (3) 26°Sg02’ 09:29:58 pm EST

Jul 16 2038 Lunar (4) 24°Cp04’ 06:47:41 am EST

Dec 11 2038 Lunar (9) 19°Ge45’ 12:29:50 pm EST

Jun 06 2039 Lunar (2) 15°Sg56’ 01:47:06 pm EST

Nov 30 2039 Lunar (8) 08°Ge19’ 11:48:59 am EST

May 26 2040 Lunar (2) 05°Sg50’ 06:46:28 am EST

Nov 18 2040 Lunar (8) 27°Ta03’ 02:05:32 pm EST

May 15 2041 Lunar (2) 25°Sc32’ 07:51:43 pm EST

Nov 07 2041 Lunar (8) 16°Ta09’ 11:42:50 pm EST

Apr 05 2042 Lunar (12) 15°Li55’ 09:15:15 am EST

Sep 29 2042 Lunar (6) 06°Ar25’ 05:33:38 am EST

Oct 28 2042 Lunar (7) 05°Ta31’ 02:47:43 pm EST

Mar 25 2043 Lunar (12) 04°Li49’ 09:25:36 am EST

Sep 18 2043 Lunar (5) 26°Pi02’ 08:46:23 pm EST

Mar 13 2044 Lunar (11) 23°Vi52’ 02:40:28 pm EST

Sep 07 2044 Lunar (5) 15°Pi29’ 06:23:42 am EST

Mar 03 2045 Lunar (11) 13°Vi08’ 02:51:55 am EST

Aug 27 2045 Lunar (5) 04°Pi43’ 09:06:56 am EST

Jan 22 2046 Lunar (10) 02°Le39’ 07:50:33 am EST

Jul 17 2046 Lunar (4) 25°Cp37’ 07:54:17 pm EST

Jan 11 2047 Lunar (9) 21°Cn44’ 08:20:34 pm EST

Jul 07 2047 Lunar (3) 15°Cp16’ 05:33:03 am EST

Jan 01 2048 Lunar (9) 10°Cn31’ 01:56:16 am EST

Jun 25 2048 Lunar (3) 05°Cp10’ 09:07:17 pm EST

Dec 20 2048 Lunar (9) 29°Ge03’ 01:38:23 am EST

May 17 2049 Lunar (2) 26°Sc59’ 06:12:55 am EST

Jun 15 2049 Lunar (3) 25°Sg08’ 02:25:57 pm EST

Nov 09 2049 Lunar (8) 17°Ta40’ 10:37:05 am EST

William Ramesey on the Great Conjunctions

Copyright 2010

William Ramesey had this to say about the Jupiter-Saturn conjunctions. This is a selection from my book, Astrology of Sustainability (2011; Schiffer Press: Atglen, PA), and includes my commentary on the passage.


The 1653 work, Astrologia Restaurata, by William Ramesey (1627-1675/6) is the first comprehensive work on mundane astrology published in English.1 It follows the structure of Bonatti quite strongly, even preceding the section on mundane with a section on electional, just as Bonatti had done with Treatises 7 and 8. One component of the earlier systems which has become vestigial by Ramesey’s day is the location system of climata. Perhaps the discovery of the New World as well as Asian and Pacific exploration made the old system seem naively stunted as it defined a center of civilization that simply no longer applied. This would only be replaced wholesale in the modern period by new systems of pinpointing locations. But even by Ramesey’s time, the climata were not strictly necessary, since Aries Ingress charts could be run for multiple locations. In any case, they had developed lists of countries and cities that were ruled by particular signs, and these listings had replaced the climata, although it remains to be determined how much of the lists had in fact been derived from them.


Where Ramesey and his other contemporaries differed was in beginning to lay greater emphasis on using the aspects besides the conjunctions of the superior planets. Thus, we see the following:

Wherefore then know, that years of War, Dissention, Quarrels and Bloodshed, are to be judged from the Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter, as also from their Square and Opposition, also from the Ascendant and Angles of the Revolution of the year; for if these Superior Planets be either in Conjunction, Square or Opposition of each other, or applying to each other by any of these Configurations, wars are to be feared, and that they shall then begin when they are in Partil Conjunction or Aspect, if they are in Angles, or else they shall begin when Jupiter enters his exaltation or one of his houses [i.e., Pisces or Sagittarius], or any of the Angles of the Figure at the time of the Revolution; and judge that party to have Victory that is signified by the Planet most elevated in his excentrik; for if Jupiter be most elevated, and be exalted above Saturn, they shall overcome who make insurrection or begin the strike.

Also if Mars be in any of the Angles at the time of the Revolution, whichsoever it be, he excites and stirs up wars according to his strength and power; for if he be strong and well dignified, it will be the more certain, also the strife and war will be the more invective and grievous; in like matter if he be in a Square of Saturn or Jupiter, because these are the Superior Planets; for take this as an approved Aphorism, that when any of the Superiors, viz. Saturn, Jupiter or Mars (who are thus termed because they are above the Sun) are in Conjunction, or any Malevolent Configuration one of another, there happens great and manifest Alterations in this Elementary world, according to their strength and natural and accidental Significations.2

Let’s tease out the ideas here that were already present in the Arabic material:

  • This quotation began by referencing the Jupiter-Saturn cycle as the source of wars and other contentions, which is exactly like the material we have already been examining from the Arabs. But immediately, Ramesey adds the other hard aspects to the conjunction as being significant. Now, instead of a twenty year cycle for Jupiter-Saturn, we are talking intervals of, on average, five years, depending upon the retrograde cycles. Also note that, since he references all the superior configurations, that there is a guarantee of an approaching aspect of Mars-Saturn to consider in every Aries Ingress, unless Mars is retrograde, because now the 2+ year cycle of Mars and Saturn can be divided by four to give well less than a year. We should note that the Arabs recognized the hard aspects as being significant: Abu Ma’shar discussed them in The Book of Flowers.3 One does detect a somewhat subtle shift, from the minor to the normal.
  • An additional activation factor needed to make the promise of the hard aspect or conjunction come true is the presence of the superiors in angles; Abu Ma’shar discussed that in Part Seven of his work, On the Great Conjunctions. They still have signification over mischief by house placement regardless; it’s just that the angles are more significant for actual war.
  • The other additional factor, which comes right out of the Arabic material as well, is that Jupiter in his Exaltation can push things over the edge. Abu Ma’shar discussed the exaltations of the planets at length, giving the impression that the exaltations were at least as significant from the standpoint of strength as sign rulership. To our modern ears, we might not think of the exalted Jupiter as so warlike, but perhaps this is a function of overconfidence and self-righteousness on the part of the ruler. As a cultural artifact, it seems that moderns view war as an aberration of peace, whereas the ancient view was that war was the business of princes.

  • The relative elevation of the superiors is also an Arabic concept: that the planet most elevated is stronger. The Arabic material had gone so far as to specify combinations, according to which of the three was most elevated. Elevation is a measure in this case of proximity to the MC. Later, we shall see how bodies at the IC can be extremely unpleasant – just the flip side of the elevation idea.

Lest it be thought that Ramesey was putting too much emphasis on the Aries Ingress at the expense of the major conjunctions, his Chapter XI and the succeeding ones address these conjunctions directly. First, he lists the seven sorts of major conjunctions one needs to consider:

The first and greatest of all the rest, is the Conjunction of the two superiour Planets Saturn and Jupiter in the first term or degree of Aries, which happens but once in nine hundred and threescore years.

The second is the Conjunction of Saturn and Jupiter in the first term or degree of every triplicity, and this is accomplished once in two hundred and forty years, yet once in twenty years, they come into Conjunction in one part or other of the Zodiack.

The third is the Conjunction of Saturn and Mars in the first term or degree of Cancer, and this is once in thirty years.

The fourth is the Conjunction of the three superiours, Saturn, Jupiter and Mars in one term or face of any sign.

The fifth is the Conjunction of Jupiter and Mars, which is a mean and the least Conjunction of the superiours, and therefore is not the fore-runner of such great mischiefs as the other;…

The sixth is the Conjunction of the Sun with any of the rest of the Planets at the time of his entrance into the first point of Aries.

The seventh and last is the Conjunction of the Sun and Moon, which happens once every month.4

Notice that points 1-3 follow exactly from Abu Ma’shar, with the addition in the enumeration of the specific definition of the first degree or Term of the sign in question.5 The thirty year cycle of Mars-Saturn is mentioned twice in Abu Ma’shar.6

This material does raise a point that, in my opinion, was never addressed adequately in the classical literature. That question concerns malefics in dignity and debility. I refer specifically to the 44th Aphorism of Guido Bonatti:

The 44th is, To consider if the Significators, Fortune or Infortune, be in his own House, Exaltation, Triplicity, Terms or Face (but the latter being not of that virtue with the rest, ‘tis necessary it should be assisted with another Dignity, which is Hayz or Light); for in such case the Infortune loses his sting; and being rein’d in like a wild horse from doing mischief, his malice is converted into good, and though this seems strange, yet the ancients affirm and I myself have often found it true by experience.7

The idea here is that malefics dignified behave rather well. This is an aphorism that I have used for years, because in horary, either Mars or Saturn dignified hardly need be counted as a malefic at all. When it reverts to a sign of no dignity, the change can virtually be described as catastrophic.

1 Ramesey, William. Astrologia Restaurata. London,: Printed for R. White, 1653.

2 Ramesey, pp 280-281.

3 Holden, James Herschel. Five Medieval Astrologers. Scottsdale, AZ: American Federation of Astrologers, 2008.

4 Ramesey, p. 327.

5 Abu, Ma’shar, Keiji Yamamoto, and Charles Burnett, 2000, p 11.

6 Abu, Ma’shar, Keiji Yamamoto, and Charles Burnett, 2000, p 11 and 149. The authors have a rather curious footnote on the later page questioning what was going on with the thirty year cycle and weakness: I would read it as simply referring to the weakness of both planets in the sign Cancer.

7 Lilly, William, Guido Bonatti, and Girolamo Cardano. Anima Astrologiae: Or, a Guide for Astrologers. Being the Considerations of the Famous Guido Bonatus, Faithfully Rendred into English. As Also the Choicest Aphorisms of Cardans Seaven Segments, Translated and Methodically Digested under Their Proper Heads. With a New Table of the Fixed Stars, Rectified for Several Years to Come, and Divers Other Necessary Illustrations. microform. Printed for B. Harris at the Stationers Arms in Sweethings Rents near the Royal Exchange, London,, 1676, pp 22-23.

The Aphorisms of William Lilly from Annus Tenebrosus (1652)

Astrological Aphorismes.

1. He who is naturally well affected unto Astrology shall verily pronounce more certain Judgements.

2. Divers effects of the Starrs are drawn forth of the Starrs, according to the various dispositions of the matter: whereof the Astrologer ought very well to examine the severall natures and qualityes of the Subjects receiving.

3. Because alwayes matter determines the form, it comes to passe that we doe freely by our wicked operations conceive our Starrs to produce those Detriments unto us.


4. The formes wherewith the Heavenly bodies do operate, are called Images, unto which the formes inferiour are subject: these are many in the signes, Decanates, and Degrees, in some Starrs, they are seperate and in many joyn’d together.

5. The visible or sensible Images of the 8th Sphear are very many, and many are made dayly there by the Planets: all which ought to be considered of the Astrologer: they have all great efficacy upon inferior bodies.

6. A Figure is not active (as some Platonists say) but the form, wherein the substance operates.

7. When he who consults produceth the Sigillation of his Constellation moving him thereunto, how suffieiently then mayest thou then resolve that matter propounded.

8. The signes have their Heterogeniall parts of the Element and answering to the Heaven, which we call the Termes of the 5 Planets.

9. Because Images, and inferior mutations, are subject to inferiors, therefore we must prudently by similitude and Analogy search out the Actions and significations of the Heavenly bodies. 10. The parts of our body are Heterogeniall, and therefore according to their proper temperaments are subject to divers Planets.

11. The significations of things are threefold, naturall, accidentall and speciall, the speciall are first to be inquired, next the accidentall, after that, the Naturall.

12. Sol and Mars are fiery; the heat of Mars is destructive, that of the Sun answers the vivifying heavenly fire.

13. Mercury is hot, cold, dry and moist in the first degree, or some will have it; but he hath an indifferend and Convertible nature.

14. Venus is cold in the second degree, moyst in the third; the Moon is cold in the third degree, moyst in the fourth Jupiter is hot in the second degree, moyst in the first; the Sun is hot in the third degree dry in the second. Mars is dry in the third, hot in the fourth. Saturn is cold and dry in the fourth degree.

15. The superior Planets are most efficacious; the inferior are weake, and easily do suffer by the superiors, and receive either good or ill from them.

16. Superior planets because they much resist, they doe not easily receive a detriment, or good turn from the inferior Planets.

17. The misfortunes proceeding from Saturn and Mars are mitigated if their places are protected by Jupiter, being well disposed and in good aspect.

18. When a Planet who is a fortune, is in Conjunction with a infortune, he allays his malice, so that the infortune shall do no hurt.

19. The fixed Stars are the most efficacious of all in their operations; for what actions they manifest or occasion are very great.

20 The fixed Stars doe imitate the nature and action of the Erraticals or Planets; wherefore they transfer their actions unto them.

21. The Moon hath a certaine naturall mutability, therefore she easily communicates unto us the influence of other Stars.

22. The Moon doth then most especially transfer Actions unto the inferior World, and the influx of other Stars from whom she is seperated, when she is swift in motion.

23. Three manner of wayes the Planets are varied or changed, by reason of their first qualities of their houses and significations.

24. Saturn governs Contemplation and Memory: Mars Boldness and fortitude, if they want not strength, or are ill disposed.

25. Retrograde Planets degenerate from their proper nature, by that meanes Fortunes are made infortunes, and the evill Planets farre worse.

26. Planets do manifest greater and worser evils when they are Stationary, then when Retrograde.

27. The Reception of Planets when they behold one another, if it be strong, doth diminish the malice of an evill aspect, and increases the goodnesse of a good aspect.

28. A Planet in an Angle doth more effectually produce his effects, but remisse in cadent houses.

29. Be not too confident either of a sextill or trine aspect in violent signes, nor out of those Signes in which the Planets behold one another, yet essentially suffer.

30. Consider what things the Planets perform not by thier aspects, and observe if they doe them not by their Antiscions; for the Antiscions have power, and are to be enumerated amongst aspects.

31. Its rare if any Planet prove a fortune in the eight or twelfth, by reason of the malignancy of those houses. 32. The qualities of Saturn and Mars are not made better by their conjunction: being mixed so together they are confounded, and hurt very much.

33. Planets are notably made unfortunate by these Accidents, viz. Combustion, Retrogradation, Peregrination, Detriment and fall.

34. The swift and various motions of the Planets are to be considered, as also their slowness; because when they vary, the accidents of the aspects doe alter.

35. Saturn seldome applies to any Planet, by reason whereof he signifies great Princes and firme Monarchs.

36. A partill Aspect comes to a passe within the difference of three degrees, a platicke happens by a semediameter of the Orbs of the Planets.

37. The vertue of a Planet is in that House, whose beginning or Cuspe a Planet precedes by no greater space then five degrees.

31. Understand the simple qualityes of the Planets for from thence thou shalt know all their mixt significations.

39. Those houses which behold not the Ascendant, signifie occult or obscure places, and these houses are the 12 : 8. and 6.

40. The application of Planets shews what is to come, the seperation what is past.

Finis

With thanks to Margaret M. Meister for typing them into electronic form.

Solar Eclipses 1900-2050

These solar eclipse positions are calculated for the exact opposition of the Sun and the Moon in tropical longitude. This is not the eclipse maxima. Computed by Solar Fire Gold (version 7).


These solar eclipse positions are calculated for the exact opposition of the Sun and the Moon in tropical longitude. This is not the eclipse maxima. Computed by Solar Fire Gold (version 7).

Solar Eclipses 1900 ns — 2050

Set For Washington, DC 38°N53’42”, 77°W02’12”

Date Type House Longitude Time Time Type

May 28 1900NS Solar (8) 06°Ge47’ 09:49:44 am EST

Nov 22 1900NS Solar (2) 29°Sc33’ 02:17:07 am EST

May 18 1901 Solar (8) 26°Ta34’ 00:37:31 am EST

Nov 11 1901 Solar (2) 18°Sc13’ 02:34:05 am EST

Apr 08 1902 Solar (6) 17°Ar47’ 08:49:56 am EST

May 07 1902 Solar (8) 16°Ta24’ 05:45:01 pm EST

Oct 31 1902 Solar (1) 06°Sc58’ 03:13:31 am EST

Mar 28 1903 Solar (6) 07°Ar11’ 08:26:00 pm EST

Sep 20 1903 Solar (12) 27°Vi00’ 11:30:38 pm EST

Mar 17 1904 Solar (5) 26°Pi12’ 00:39:07 am EST

Sep 09 1904 Solar (11) 16°Vi42’ 03:42:38 pm EST

Mar 06 1905 Solar (5) 14°Pi58’ 00:19:15 am EST

Aug 30 1905 Solar (11) 06°Vi28’ 08:13:14 am EST

Feb 23 1906 Solar (5) 03°Pi48’ 02:57:09 am EST

Jul 21 1906 Solar (10) 27°Cn49’ 07:58:55 am EST

Aug 19 1906 Solar (10) 26°Le06’ 08:27:16 pm EST

Jan 14 1907 Solar (3) 22°Cp55’ 00:56:50 am EST

Jul 10 1907 Solar (9) 17°Cn11’ 10:16:55 am EST

Jan 03 1908 Solar (3) 12°Cp08’ 04:43:13 pm EST

Jun 28 1908 Solar (9) 06°Cn31’ 11:31:19 am EST

Dec 23 1908 Solar (3) 01°Cp17’ 06:49:37 am EST

Jun 17 1909 Solar (9) 26°Ge04’ 06:28:10 pm EST

Dec 12 1909 Solar (3) 20°Sg11’ 02:58:30 pm EST

May 09 1910 Solar (8) 17°Ta42’ 00:32:36 am EST

Nov 01 1910 Solar (1) 08°Sc46’ 08:55:51 pm EST

Apr 28 1911 Solar (7) 07°Ta29’ 05:24:47 pm EST

Oct 21 1911 Solar (1) 27°Li38’ 11:09:09 pm EST

Apr 17 1912 Solar (7) 27°Ar05’ 06:39:51 am EST

Oct 10 1912 Solar (12) 16°Li52’ 08:40:23 am EST

Apr 06 1913 Solar (6) 16°Ar19’ 12:47:45 pm EST

Aug 31 1913 Solar (11) 07°Vi48’ 03:37:46 pm EST

Sep 29 1913 Solar (12) 06°Li25’ 11:56:31 pm EST

Feb 24 1914 Solar (5) 05°Pi33’ 07:01:46 pm EST

Aug 21 1914 Solar (10) 27°Le35’ 07:26:07 am EST

Feb 13 1915 Solar (4) 24°Aq24’ 11:30:47 pm EST

Aug 10 1915 Solar (10) 17°Le12’ 05:51:58 pm EST

Feb 03 1916 Solar (4) 13°Aq30’ 11:05:14 am EST

Jul 29 1916 Solar (10) 06°Le34’ 09:14:56 pm EST

Dec 24 1916 Solar (3) 02°Cp44’ 03:30:51 pm EST

Jan 23 1917 Solar (4) 02°Aq45’ 02:39:37 am EST

Jun 19 1917 Solar (9) 27°Ge38’ 08:01:48 am EST

Jul 18 1917 Solar (10) 25°Cn51’ 09:59:36 pm EST

Dec 14 1917 Solar (3) 21°Sg50’ 04:17:03 am EST

Jun 08 1918 Solar (9) 17°Ge15’ 06:02:25 pm EWT

Dec 03 1918 Solar (2) 10°Sg39’ 10:18:52 am EST

May 29 1919 Solar (8) 07°Ge06’ 09:11:34 am EWT

Nov 22 1919 Solar (2) 29°Sc16’ 10:19:19 am EST

May 18 1920 Solar (8) 26°Ta59’ 01:24:46 am EST

Nov 10 1920 Solar (2) 17°Sc58’ 11:04:48 am EST

Apr 08 1921 Solar (6) 17°Ar59’ 04:04:46 am EST

Oct 01 1921 Solar (12) 07°Li46’ 07:26:00 am EST

Mar 28 1922 Solar (6) 07°Ar04’ 08:03:00 am EST

Sep 20 1922 Solar (12) 27°Vi24’ 11:37:58 pm EST

Mar 17 1923 Solar (5) 25°Pi54’ 07:51:03 am EST

Sep 10 1923 Solar (11) 17°Vi06’ 03:52:26 pm EST

Mar 05 1924 Solar (5) 14°Pi49’ 10:57:32 am EST

Jul 31 1924 Solar (10) 08°Le16’ 02:41:43 pm EST

Aug 30 1924 Solar (11) 06°Vi40’ 03:36:38 am EST

Jan 24 1925 Solar (4) 04°Aq07’ 09:44:52 am EST

Jul 20 1925 Solar (10) 27°Cn36’ 04:39:45 pm EST

Jan 14 1926 Solar (3) 23°Cp21’ 01:34:31 am EST

Jul 09 1926 Solar (9) 16°Cn56’ 06:06:15 pm EST

Jan 03 1927 Solar (3) 12°Cp28’ 03:27:46 pm EST

Jun 29 1927 Solar (9) 06°Cn31’ 01:31:51 am EST

Dec 23 1927 Solar (3) 01°Cp21’ 11:13:09 pm EST

May 19 1928 Solar (8) 28°Ta17’ 08:13:56 am EST

Jun 17 1928 Solar (9) 26°Ge21’ 03:41:58 pm EST

Nov 12 1928 Solar (2) 19°Sc46’ 04:35:13 am EST

May 09 1929 Solar (8) 18°Ta07’ 01:07:10 am EST

Nov 01 1929 Solar (1) 08°Sc35’ 07:00:46 am EST

Apr 28 1930 Solar (7) 07°Ta45’ 02:08:19 pm EST

Oct 21 1930 Solar (1) 27°Li46’ 04:47:31 pm EST

Apr 17 1931 Solar (7) 27°Ar02’ 07:59:34 pm EST

Sep 11 1931 Solar (11) 18°Vi27’ 11:26:20 pm EST

Oct 11 1931 Solar (12) 17°Li15’ 08:05:51 am EST

Mar 07 1932 Solar (5) 16°Pi32’ 02:44:13 am EST

Aug 31 1932 Solar (11) 08°Vi10’ 02:54:31 pm EST

Feb 24 1933 Solar (5) 05°Pi28’ 07:43:49 am EST

Aug 21 1933 Solar (10) 27°Le42’ 00:47:47 am EST

Feb 13 1934 Solar (4) 24°Aq38’ 07:43:21 pm EST

Aug 10 1934 Solar (10) 17°Le01’ 03:45:32 am EST

Jan 05 1935 Solar (3) 13°Cp57’ 00:20:04 am EST

Feb 03 1935 Solar (4) 13°Aq55’ 11:27:18 am EST

Jun 30 1935 Solar (9) 08°Cn04’ 02:44:27 pm EST

Jul 30 1935 Solar (10) 06°Le17’ 04:32:22 am EST

Dec 25 1935 Solar (3) 03°Cp01’ 12:49:24 pm EST

Jun 19 1936 Solar (9) 27°Ge43’ 00:14:25 am EST

Dec 13 1936 Solar (3) 21°Sg48’ 06:24:51 pm EST

Jun 08 1937 Solar (9) 17°Ge36’ 03:42:55 pm EST

Dec 02 1937 Solar (2) 10°Sg22’ 06:10:38 pm EST

May 29 1938 Solar (8) 07°Ge31’ 08:59:32 am EST

Nov 21 1938 Solar (2) 29°Sc01’ 07:04:40 pm EST

Apr 19 1939 Solar (7) 28°Ar43’ 11:35:01 am EST

Oct 12 1939 Solar (12) 18°Li36’ 03:30:04 pm EST

Apr 07 1940 Solar (6) 17°Ar51’ 03:18:19 pm EST

Oct 01 1940 Solar (12) 08°Li10’ 07:41:04 am EST

Mar 27 1941 Solar (6) 06°Ar45’ 03:13:41 pm EST

Sep 20 1941 Solar (12) 27°Vi48’ 11:38:28 pm EST

Mar 16 1942 Solar (5) 25°Pi45’ 07:49:52 pm EWT

Aug 11 1942 Solar (10) 18°Le45’ 10:27:39 pm EWT

Sep 10 1942 Solar (11) 17°Vi18’ 11:52:40 am EWT

Feb 04 1943 Solar (4) 15°Aq17’ 07:28:54 pm EWT

Aug 01 1943 Solar (10) 08°Le02’ 00:06:15 am EWT

Jan 25 1944 Solar (4) 04°Aq32’ 11:24:10 am EWT

Jul 20 1944 Solar (10) 27°Cn21’ 01:42:24 am EWT

Jan 14 1945 Solar (3) 23°Cp41’ 01:06:33 am EWT

Jul 09 1945 Solar (9) 16°Cn57’ 09:35:13 am EWT

Jan 03 1946 Solar (3) 12°Cp32’ 07:29:37 am EST

May 30 1946 Solar (8) 08°Ge48’ 03:49:19 pm EST

Jun 28 1946 Solar (9) 06°Cn48’ 11:05:41 pm EST

Nov 23 1946 Solar (2) 00°Sg49’ 12:23:46 pm EST

May 20 1947 Solar (8) 28°Ta41’ 09:43:39 am EDT

Nov 12 1947 Solar (2) 19°Sc35’ 03:00:55 pm EST

May 08 1948 Solar (8) 18°Ta22’ 10:30:07 pm EDT

Nov 01 1948 Solar (1) 08°Sc43’ 01:02:32 am EST

Apr 28 1949 Solar (7) 07°Ta41’ 04:02:12 am EDT

Oct 21 1949 Solar (1) 28°Li08’ 04:22:47 pm EST

Mar 18 1950 Solar (6) 27°Pi27’ 10:20:00 am EST

Sep 11 1950 Solar (11) 18°Vi48’ 11:28:52 pm EDT

Mar 07 1951 Solar (5) 16°Pi28’ 03:50:30 pm EST

Sep 01 1951 Solar (11) 08°Vi16’ 08:49:34 am EDT

Feb 25 1952 Solar (5) 05°Pi43’ 04:15:56 am EST

Aug 20 1952 Solar (10) 27°Le31’ 11:20:19 am EDT

Feb 13 1953 Solar (4) 25°Aq03’ 08:10:14 pm EST

Jul 10 1953 Solar (9) 18°Cn29’ 10:28:06 pm EDT

Aug 09 1953 Solar (10) 16°Le45’ 12:09:55 pm EDT

Jan 04 1954 Solar (3) 14°Cp13’ 09:21:19 pm EST

Jun 30 1954 Solar (9) 08°Cn10’ 08:25:40 am EDT

Dec 25 1954 Solar (3) 02°Cp58’ 02:33:08 am EST

Jun 20 1955 Solar (9) 28°Ge04’ 00:11:44 am EDT

Dec 14 1955 Solar (3) 21°Sg30’ 02:07:02 am EST

Jun 08 1956 Solar (9) 18°Ge01’ 05:29:07 pm EDT

Dec 02 1956 Solar (2) 10°Sg08’ 03:12:30 am EST

Apr 29 1957 Solar (7) 09°Ta22’ 07:53:46 pm EDT

Oct 23 1957 Solar (1) 29°Li31’ 00:43:20 am EDT

Apr 18 1958 Solar (7) 28°Ar34’ 10:23:27 pm EST

Oct 12 1958 Solar (12) 19°Li01’ 04:51:55 pm EDT

Apr 07 1959 Solar (6) 17°Ar33’ 10:28:59 pm EST

Oct 02 1959 Solar (12) 08°Li34’ 08:30:51 am EDT

Mar 27 1960 Solar (6) 06°Ar38’ 02:37:17 am EST

Sep 20 1960 Solar (12) 27°Vi58’ 07:12:29 pm EDT

Feb 15 1961 Solar (4) 26°Aq25’ 03:10:19 am EST

Aug 11 1961 Solar (10) 18°Le30’ 06:35:44 am EDT

Feb 04 1962 Solar (4) 15°Aq42’ 07:09:53 pm EST

Jul 31 1962 Solar (10) 07°Le48’ 08:23:40 am EDT

Jan 25 1963 Solar (4) 04°Aq51’ 08:41:53 am EST

Jul 20 1963 Solar (10) 27°Cn24’ 04:42:42 pm EDT

Jan 14 1964 Solar (3) 23°Cp43’ 03:43:28 pm EST

Jun 10 1964 Solar (9) 19°Ge18’ 00:22:16 am EDT

Jul 09 1964 Solar (9) 17°Cn15’ 07:30:46 am EDT

Dec 03 1964 Solar (2) 11°Sg55’ 08:18:11 pm EST

May 30 1965 Solar (8) 09°Ge13’ 05:12:31 pm EDT

Nov 22 1965 Solar (2) 00°Sg39’ 11:09:51 pm EST

May 20 1966 Solar (8) 28°Ta55’ 05:42:14 am EDT

Nov 12 1966 Solar (2) 19°Sc45’ 09:26:19 am EST

May 09 1967 Solar (8) 18°Ta17’ 10:55:18 am EDT

Nov 02 1967 Solar (1) 09°Sc07’ 00:48:18 am EST

Mar 28 1968 Solar (6) 08°Ar18’ 05:47:58 pm EST

Sep 22 1968 Solar (12) 29°Vi29’ 07:08:05 am EDT

Mar 17 1969 Solar (6) 27°Pi25’ 11:51:20 pm EST

Sep 11 1969 Solar (11) 18°Vi53’ 03:55:47 pm EDT

Mar 07 1970 Solar (5) 16°Pi44’ 12:42:26 pm EST

Aug 31 1970 Solar (11) 08°Vi04’ 06:01:12 pm EDT

Feb 25 1971 Solar (5) 06°Pi08’ 04:48:32 am EST

Jul 22 1971 Solar (10) 28°Cn55’ 05:14:57 am EDT

Aug 20 1971 Solar (10) 27°Le15’ 06:53:20 pm EDT

Jan 16 1972 Solar (4) 25°Cp24’ 05:52:22 am EST

Jul 10 1972 Solar (9) 18°Cn36’ 03:38:45 pm EDT

Jan 04 1973 Solar (3) 14°Cp09’ 10:42:28 am EST

Jun 30 1973 Solar (9) 08°Cn31’ 07:38:44 am EDT

Dec 24 1973 Solar (3) 02°Cp40’ 10:07:01 am EST

Jun 20 1974 Solar (9) 28°Ge29’ 00:55:39 am EDT

Dec 13 1974 Solar (3) 21°Sg17’ 11:24:44 am EST

May 11 1975 Solar (8) 19°Ta58’ 03:04:52 am EDT

Nov 03 1975 Solar (1) 10°Sc29’ 08:04:46 am EST

Apr 29 1976 Solar (7) 09°Ta13’ 06:19:28 am EDT

Oct 23 1976 Solar (1) 29°Li55’ 01:09:38 am EDT

Apr 18 1977 Solar (7) 28°Ar16’ 05:35:25 am EST

Oct 12 1977 Solar (12) 19°Li24’ 04:30:41 pm EDT

Apr 07 1978 Solar (6) 17°Ar26’ 10:15:08 am EST

Oct 02 1978 Solar (12) 08°Li43’ 02:40:38 am EDT

Feb 26 1979 Solar (5) 07°Pi29’ 11:45:12 am EST

Aug 22 1979 Solar (11) 29°Le00’ 01:10:25 pm EDT

Feb 16 1980 Solar (4) 26°Aq50’ 03:50:52 am EST

Aug 10 1980 Solar (10) 18°Le16’ 03:09:17 pm EDT

Feb 04 1981 Solar (4) 16°Aq01’ 05:13:45 pm EST

Jul 30 1981 Solar (10) 07°Le51’ 11:51:57 pm EDT

Jan 24 1982 Solar (4) 04°Aq53’ 11:55:56 pm EST

Jun 21 1982 Solar (9) 29°Ge46’ 07:51:45 am EDT

Jul 20 1982 Solar (10) 27°Cn43’ 02:56:37 pm EDT

Dec 15 1982 Solar (3) 23°Sg04’ 04:18:03 am EST

Jun 11 1983 Solar (9) 19°Ge42’ 00:37:31 am EDT

Dec 04 1983 Solar (2) 11°Sg46’ 07:25:51 am EST

May 30 1984 Solar (8) 09°Ge26’ 12:47:50 pm EDT

Nov 22 1984 Solar (2) 00°Sg50’ 05:56:40 pm EST

May 19 1985 Solar (8) 28°Ta50’ 05:41:07 pm EDT

Nov 12 1985 Solar (2) 20°Sc08’ 09:20:20 am EST

Apr 09 1986 Solar (6) 19°Ar05’ 01:08:07 am EST

Oct 03 1986 Solar (12) 10°Li16’ 02:54:45 pm EDT

Mar 29 1987 Solar (6) 08°Ar17’ 07:45:32 am EST

Sep 22 1987 Solar (12) 29°Vi34’ 11:08:12 pm EDT

Mar 17 1988 Solar (6) 27°Pi41’ 09:02:19 pm EST

Sep 11 1988 Solar (11) 18°Vi40’ 00:49:08 am EDT

Mar 07 1989 Solar (5) 17°Pi09’ 01:18:39 pm EST

Aug 31 1989 Solar (11) 07°Vi48’ 01:44:31 am EDT

Jan 26 1990 Solar (4) 06°Aq34’ 02:20:01 pm EST

Jul 21 1990 Solar (10) 29°Cn04’ 10:54:17 pm EDT

Jan 15 1991 Solar (4) 25°Cp19’ 06:49:38 pm EST

Jul 11 1991 Solar (9) 18°Cn59’ 03:06:05 pm EDT

Jan 04 1992 Solar (3) 13°Cp51’ 06:09:34 pm EST

Jun 30 1992 Solar (9) 08°Cn56’ 08:18:01 am EDT

Dec 23 1992 Solar (3) 02°Cp27’ 07:42:51 pm EST

May 21 1993 Solar (8) 00°Ge31’ 10:06:31 am EDT

Nov 13 1993 Solar (2) 21°Sc31’ 04:34:20 pm EST

May 10 1994 Solar (8) 19°Ta48’ 01:06:34 pm EDT

Nov 03 1994 Solar (1) 10°Sc54’ 08:35:29 am EST

Apr 29 1995 Solar (7) 08°Ta56’ 01:36:19 pm EDT

Oct 24 1995 Solar (1) 00°Sc17’ 00:36:12 am EDT

Apr 17 1996 Solar (7) 28°Ar11’ 06:48:45 pm EDT

Oct 12 1996 Solar (12) 19°Li31’ 10:14:26 am EDT

Mar 08 1997 Solar (5) 18°Pi30’ 08:14:34 pm EST

Sep 01 1997 Solar (11) 09°Vi33’ 07:51:34 pm EDT

Feb 26 1998 Solar (5) 07°Pi54’ 12:25:55 pm EST

Aug 21 1998 Solar (11) 28°Le48’ 10:03:05 pm EDT

Feb 16 1999 Solar (4) 27°Aq07’ 01:38:41 am EST

Aug 11 1999 Solar (10) 18°Le21’ 07:08:29 am EDT

Feb 05 2000 Solar (4) 16°Aq01’ 08:03:16 am EST

Jul 01 2000 Solar (9) 10°Cn14’ 03:19:55 pm EDT

Jul 30 2000 Solar (10) 08°Le11’ 10:25:08 pm EDT

Dec 25 2000 Solar (3) 04°Cp14’ 12:21:37 pm EST

Jun 21 2001 Solar (9) 00°Cn10’ 07:57:45 am EDT

Dec 14 2001 Solar (3) 22°Sg56’ 03:47:23 pm EST

Jun 10 2002 Solar (9) 19°Ge54’ 07:46:31 pm EDT

Dec 04 2002 Solar (2) 11°Sg58’ 02:34:21 am EST

May 31 2003 Solar (8) 09°Ge19’ 00:19:52 am EDT

Nov 23 2003 Solar (2) 01°Sg13’ 05:58:56 pm EST

Apr 19 2004 Solar (7) 29°Ar49’ 09:21:11 am EDT

Oct 13 2004 Solar (1) 21°Li06’ 10:48:15 pm EDT

Apr 08 2005 Solar (6) 19°Ar05’ 04:32:00 pm EDT

Oct 03 2005 Solar (12) 10°Li18’ 06:27:52 am EDT

Mar 29 2006 Solar (6) 08°Ar34’ 05:15:14 am EST

Sep 22 2006 Solar (12) 29°Vi20’ 07:45:03 am EDT

Mar 18 2007 Solar (6) 28°Pi07’ 10:42:33 pm EDT

Sep 11 2007 Solar (11) 18°Vi24’ 08:44:14 am EDT

Feb 06 2008 Solar (4) 17°Aq44’ 10:44:30 pm EST

Aug 01 2008 Solar (10) 09°Le31’ 06:12:33 am EDT

Jan 26 2009 Solar (4) 06°Aq29’ 02:55:17 am EST

Jul 21 2009 Solar (10) 29°Cn26’ 10:34:36 pm EDT

Jan 15 2010 Solar (4) 25°Cp01’ 02:11:22 am EST

Jul 11 2010 Solar (9) 19°Cn23’ 03:40:27 pm EDT

Jan 04 2011 Solar (3) 13°Cp38’ 04:02:36 am EST

Jun 01 2011 Solar (8) 11°Ge01’ 05:02:36 pm EDT

Jul 01 2011 Solar (9) 09°Cn12’ 04:53:54 am EDT

Nov 25 2011 Solar (2) 02°Sg36’ 01:09:40 am EST

May 20 2012 Solar (8) 00°Ge20’ 07:47:00 pm EDT

Nov 13 2012 Solar (2) 21°Sc56’ 05:07:59 pm EST

May 09 2013 Solar (8) 19°Ta31’ 08:28:22 pm EDT

Nov 03 2013 Solar (1) 11°Sc15’ 07:49:56 am EST

Apr 29 2014 Solar (7) 08°Ta51’ 02:14:19 am EDT

Oct 23 2014 Solar (1) 00°Sc25’ 05:56:38 pm EDT

Mar 20 2015 Solar (6) 29°Pi27’ 05:36:08 am EDT

Sep 13 2015 Solar (11) 20°Vi10’ 02:41:13 am EDT

Mar 08 2016 Solar (5) 18°Pi55’ 08:54:25 pm EST

Sep 01 2016 Solar (11) 09°Vi21’ 05:03:02 am EDT

Feb 26 2017 Solar (5) 08°Pi12’ 09:58:18 am EST

Aug 21 2017 Solar (11) 28°Le52’ 02:30:06 pm EDT

Feb 15 2018 Solar (4) 27°Aq07’ 04:05:06 pm EST

Jul 12 2018 Solar (9) 20°Cn41’ 10:47:46 pm EDT

Aug 11 2018 Solar (10) 18°Le41’ 05:57:38 am EDT

Jan 05 2019 Solar (3) 15°Cp25’ 08:28:04 pm EST

Jul 02 2019 Solar (9) 10°Cn37’ 03:16:05 pm EDT

Dec 26 2019 Solar (3) 04°Cp06’ 00:13:00 am EST

Jun 21 2020 Solar (9) 00°Cn21’ 02:41:18 am EDT

Dec 14 2020 Solar (3) 23°Sg08’ 11:16:26 am EST

Jun 10 2021 Solar (9) 19°Ge47’ 05:52:28 am EST

Dec 04 2021 Solar (2) 12°Sg22’ 02:42:51 am EST

Apr 30 2022 Solar (7) 10°Ta28’ 03:27:54 pm EST

Oct 25 2022 Solar (1) 02°Sc00’ 05:48:30 am EST

Apr 19 2023 Solar (7) 29°Ar49’ 11:12:18 pm EST

Oct 14 2023 Solar (1) 21°Li07’ 12:54:55 pm EST

Apr 08 2024 Solar (6) 19°Ar23’ 01:20:36 pm EST

Oct 02 2024 Solar (12) 10°Li03’ 01:49:02 pm EST

Mar 29 2025 Solar (6) 08°Ar59’ 05:57:33 am EST

Sep 21 2025 Solar (12) 29°Vi05’ 02:53:51 pm EST

Feb 17 2026 Solar (5) 28°Aq49’ 07:00:51 am EST

Aug 12 2026 Solar (10) 20°Le02’ 12:36:27 pm EST

Feb 06 2027 Solar (4) 17°Aq37’ 10:55:47 am EST

Aug 02 2027 Solar (10) 09°Le55’ 05:04:54 am EST

Jan 26 2028 Solar (4) 06°Aq10’ 10:12:09 am EST

Jul 21 2028 Solar (10) 29°Cn50’ 10:01:22 pm EST

Jan 14 2029 Solar (4) 24°Cp50’ 12:24:08 pm EST

Jun 11 2029 Solar (9) 21°Ge29’ 10:50:10 pm EST

Jul 11 2029 Solar (9) 19°Cn37’ 10:50:41 am EST

Dec 05 2029 Solar (2) 13°Sg45’ 09:51:45 am EST

Jun 01 2030 Solar (8) 10°Ge49’ 01:20:57 am EST

Nov 25 2030 Solar (2) 03°Sg02’ 01:46:05 am EST

May 21 2031 Solar (8) 00°Ge04’ 02:16:47 am EST

Nov 14 2031 Solar (2) 22°Sc17’ 04:09:12 pm EST

May 09 2032 Solar (8) 19°Ta28’ 08:35:17 am EST

Nov 03 2032 Solar (1) 11°Sc21’ 00:44:30 am EST

Mar 30 2033 Solar (6) 10°Ar20’ 12:51:11 pm EST

Sep 23 2033 Solar (12) 00°Li51’ 08:39:19 am EST

Mar 20 2034 Solar (6) 29°Pi52’ 05:14:05 am EST

Sep 12 2034 Solar (11) 19°Vi58’ 11:13:19 am EST

Mar 09 2035 Solar (5) 19°Pi12’ 06:08:58 pm EST

Sep 01 2035 Solar (11) 09°Vi28’ 08:59:02 pm EST

Feb 26 2036 Solar (5) 08°Pi10’ 11:58:45 pm EST

Jul 23 2036 Solar (10) 01°Le09’ 05:16:29 am EST

Aug 21 2036 Solar (11) 29°Le14’ 12:34:49 pm EST

Jan 16 2037 Solar (4) 26°Cp35’ 04:33:51 am EST

Jul 12 2037 Solar (9) 21°Cn03’ 09:31:15 pm EST

Jan 05 2038 Solar (3) 15°Cp18’ 08:40:47 am EST

Jul 02 2038 Solar (9) 10°Cn47’ 08:31:35 am EST

Dec 25 2038 Solar (3) 04°Cp19’ 08:01:24 pm EST

Jun 21 2039 Solar (9) 00°Cn12’ 12:20:50 pm EST

Dec 15 2039 Solar (3) 23°Sg32’ 11:31:27 am EST

May 10 2040 Solar (8) 21°Ta03’ 10:27:15 pm EST

Nov 04 2040 Solar (1) 12°Sc58’ 01:55:22 pm EST

Apr 30 2041 Solar (7) 10°Ta30’ 06:45:41 am EST

Oct 24 2041 Solar (1) 02°Sc00’ 08:29:40 pm EST

Apr 19 2042 Solar (7) 00°Ta08’ 09:18:38 pm EST

Oct 13 2042 Solar (1) 20°Li52’ 09:02:27 pm EST

Apr 09 2043 Solar (6) 19°Ar49’ 02:05:56 pm EST

Oct 02 2043 Solar (12) 09°Li49’ 10:11:28 pm EST

Feb 28 2044 Solar (5) 09°Pi53’ 03:11:40 pm EST

Aug 22 2044 Solar (11) 00°Vi34’ 08:05:17 pm EST

Feb 16 2045 Solar (5) 28°Aq42’ 06:50:24 pm EST

Aug 12 2045 Solar (10) 20°Le25’ 12:38:32 pm EST

Feb 05 2046 Solar (4) 17°Aq18’ 06:08:57 pm EST

Aug 02 2046 Solar (10) 10°Le19’ 05:24:44 am EST

Jan 25 2047 Solar (4) 06°Aq00’ 08:42:59 pm EST

Jun 23 2047 Solar (9) 01°Cn55’ 05:35:03 am EST

Jul 22 2047 Solar (10) 00°Le04’ 05:48:33 pm EST

Dec 16 2047 Solar (3) 24°Sg55’ 06:37:28 pm EST

Jun 11 2048 Solar (9) 21°Ge16’ 07:49:08 am EST

Dec 05 2048 Solar (2) 14°Sg10’ 10:29:19 am EST

May 31 2049 Solar (8) 10°Ge33’ 08:59:17 am EST

Nov 25 2049 Solar (2) 03°Sg23’ 00:34:52 am EST

Planetary Missions

Note: Launches of Soviet spacecraft occurred from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, USSR, unless noted.
Launches of US spacecraft occurred from Cape Canaveral, FL, unless noted.

Sputnik USSR – Oct 4, 1957 – first satellite
Launched 19.28.34 GMT
Korabl 4 USSR – Oct 10, 1960 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit
Korabl 5 USSR – Oct 14, 1960 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit
Mariner 2 USA – Aug 27, 1962 – Venus Flyby
Launched at 6:53:13 UT
passed Venus at a distance of 41,000 km on December 14, 1962.
Korabl 11 USSR – Oct 24, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed to leave Earth orbit
Mars 1 USSR – Nov 1, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Lost communications Mar. 21, 1963
Korabl 13 USSR – Nov 4, 1962 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Failed in Earth orbit, reentered Nov. 5, 1962.
Mariner 3 USA – Nov 5, 1964 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Launch failure, entered solar orbit
Mariner 4 USA – Nov 26, 1964 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 14:42 UT
Reached Mars on July 14, 1965, and returned 21 complete pictures. Closest approach was 9,846 km from the Martian surface. Lost signal acquisition October 1965. Data acquisition resumed in late 1966 and continued until December 20, 1967.
Zond 2 USSR – Nov 30, 1964 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Lost communications May 1965
Zond 3 USSR – Jul 18, 1965 – Mars Flyby
Photographed Moon, reached Mars orbit
Venera 4 USSR – Jun 12, 1967 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 5 USA – Jun 14, 1967 – Venus Flyby
Launched at 06:01:00 UT
It was the backup spacecraft for the Mariner 4 mission and then it was programmed for Venus. It passed within 4,000 km on October 19, 1967.
Venera 5 USSR – Jan 5, 1969 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Venera 6 USSR – Jan 10, 1969 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 6 USA – Feb 24, 1969 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 01:29:00 UT
Used exclusively for planetary data acquisition; no data were obtained during the trip to Mars or beyond Mars. Mariner 6 passed within 3,431 km on July 31, 1969. Data from it were used to program
Mariner 7.
Mariner 7 USA – Mar 27, 1969 – Mars Flyby
Launched at 22:22:00 UT
Identical in construction to Mariner 6, it also was used to gather planetary data exclusively. It passed 3,430 km from Mars on August 5, 1969.
(None Given) USSR – Mar 27, 1969 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Believed to have been a launch failure.
(None Given) USA – Apr 14, 1969 – Mars Flyby (aborted)
Venera 7 USSR – Aug 17, 1970 – Venus Atmospheric Probe
Mariner 8 USA – May 8, 1971 – Mars Orbiter (aborted)
Failed to reach orbit
Kosmos 419 USSR – May 10, 1971 – Mars Orbiter (aborted)
Failed to leave Earth orbit; reentered the atmosphere and burned up.
Mars 2 USSR – May 19, 1971 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Orbited Mars; descent module crashed Nov. 27
Mars 3 USSR – May 28, 1971 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Orbited Mars; descent module failed upon landing Dec. 2
Mariner 9 USA – May 30, 1971 – Mars Orbiter & Atmospheric Probe
Originally paired for this mission with Mariner 8, which failed, Mariner
9 combined mission objectives of both Mariner 8 (mapping 70 % of the
Martian surface) and Mariner 9 (a study of temporal atmospheric changes
and on the surface). It arrived at Mars on November 14, 1971. After
depleting its supply of attitude control gas, the spacecraft was turned off
October 27, 1972.
Pioneer 10 USA – Mar 3, 1972 – Jupiter Flyby
Launched at 1:49:00 UT
Pioneer 11 USA – Apr 6, 1973 – Jupiter & Saturn Flyby
Launched at 2:11:00 UT
Mars 4 USSR – Jul 21, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Failed to orbit, flew by Feb. 10
Mars 5 USSR – Jul 25, 1973 – Mars Landing (partially aborted)
Entered orbit of Mars Feb. 12, 1974; partially successful.
Mars 6 USSR – Aug 5, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Descent module communications failure just before landing Mar. 12
Mars 7 USSR – Aug 9, 1973 – Mars Landing (aborted)
Failed to land; flew by Mar. 9, 1974.
Mariner 10 USA – Nov 3, 1973 – Venus & Mercury Probe
Launched at 05:45:00 UT
Mariner 10 was the first to use the gravitational pull of one planet (Venus) to reach another (Mercury). Instruments measured the atmospheric, surface, and physical characteristics of Mercury and Venus. The spacecraft passed Venus on February 5, 1974, at a distance of 4200 km. It crossed the orbit of Mercury on March 29, 1974, at 20:46 UT, at a distance of about 704 km from the surface. The craft captured data from comet Kohoutek while enroute to Venus. A second encounter with Mercury occurred September 21, 1974, at an altitude of about 47,000 km. A final Mercury encounter at an altitude of 327 km. Tests were continued until March 24, 1975, when mission termination followed the depletion of attitude-control gas.
Venera 9 USSR – Jun 8, 1975 – Venus Lander
Landing occurred on Oct 22, 1975 at 5:13 UT.
Viking 1 USA – Aug 20, 1975 – Mars surface studies
Viking 1 arrived at Mars on June 19, 1976. On July 20, 1976, it landed at
Chryse Planitia (22.27 N, 49.97 W, 2 km below the datum elevation).
Viking 2 USA – Sep 9, 1975 – Mars surface studies
Viking 2 entered Mars orbit on August 7, 1976, and touched down at Utopia
Planitia (47.57 N, 225.74 W) on September 3, 1976.
Voyager 2 USA – Aug 20, 1977 – multi-planet flyby
Actually part of the Mariner series, these two Voyagers were designed to visit
Jupiter and Saturn. Voyager 2 was programmed so that to could be directed toward
Uranus and Neptune to perform similar studies. Arrived at Jupiter July 1979.
Arrived at Saturn Aug 1981.
Voyager 1 USA – Sep 5, 1977 – multi-planet flyby
Although launched after Voyager 2, Voyager 1’s trajectory was faster, allowing
it to arrive at Jupiter in March 1979. Arrived at Saturn Nov. 1980. Then diverted
to Uranus (January 1986) and Neptune (August 1989).
Pioneer Orbiter USA – May 20, 1978 – Venus orbiter
Orbit established December 4, 1978.
Pioneer Multiprobe USA – Aug 8, 1978 – Venus atmospheric probe
Containing one large and three small atmospheric probes, the large probe was
released on November 16, 1978 and the three small probes on November 20. All
four probes entered the Venus atmosphere on December 9.
Suisei JAP – Mar 18, 1985 – Comet Halley Flyby
Flyby occurred Mar 8, 1986
Giotto ESA – Jul 2, 1985 – Comet Halley Flyby
Flyby occurred Mar 13, 1986
Phobos 1 USSR – Aug 5, 1988 – Mars Lander (aborted)
Lost contact Aug. 31
Phobos 2 USSR – Aug 9, 1988 – Mars Lander (aborted)
Orbited Mars 1989 Jan. 29; lost contact Mar. 27, 1989.
Magellan USA – May 4, 1989 – Venus Flyby
10 Aug 1990 – Venus orbit insertion and spacecraft checkout
24 May 1993 – Aerobraking to circular orbit
12 Oct 1994 – Loss of radio signal
13 Oct 1994 – Expected loss of spacecraft
Galileo USA – Oct 18, 1989 – Jupiter Flyby
Launched at 23:23:40 UT from Atlantis Shuttle.
The primary mission is to explore Jupiter and its satellites. In order to
conserve fuel, a series of planetary flybys has taken place in order to
give Galileo a gravity assist to Jupiter. Venus: 10 Feb 1990, Earth/Moon 1:
8 Dec 1990, Gaspra: 29 Oct 1991, Earth/Moon 2: 8 Dec 1992, Ida: 28 Aug
1993. Jupiter arrival: 7 Dec 1995. 1st flyby of the Jovian Moon Callisto,
occurred on 04 Nov 1996. At 13:34 UTC, Galileo’s closest approach was about
1098 km from the surface of Callisto.
Ulysses USA – Oct 6, 1990 – Solar systems astrophysics
Launched at 11:47:16 UT from Space Shuttle Discovery
It is investigating the properties of the solar wind and the interplanetary
magnetic field, of galactic cosmic rays and neutral interstellar gas.
Yohkoh JAP – Aug 30, 1991 – Solar flare activity
Mars Observer USA – Sep 15, 1993 – Mars surface studies (aborted)
Launched at 17:05:01 UT
Contact with Mars Observer was lost on August 21, 1993, three days before
scheduled orbit insertion, for unknown reasons. Contact has not been
re-established.
ISO ESA – Nov 17, 1995 – Infrared Space Observatory
Launched at 01:20:04
SOHO ESA – Dec 12, 1995 – Solar probe
Launched from Cape Canaveral, FL
Cluster ESA – Jun 4, 1996 – Earth-Sun interactions (aborted)
Launched at 12:33:59 GMT from Guina Space Center, Kourou, French Guiana.
Guidance failure 37 sec after lift-off: possibly an electrical or software error.
Global Surveyor USA – Nov 7, 1996 – Mars surface studies
Launched at 17:00:50 UT
The spacecraft will arrive at Mars around September, 1997. Aerobraking and thrusters
will produce a nearly circular 2 hour polar orbit. Mapping operations will
begin in January, 1998. Data will be acquired for one Martian year (approx. 2
Earth years). It will be used as a data relay for later U.S. and international
missions over the following three years.
Mars-96 RUS – Nov 16, 1996 – Mars orbiter (abort)
Launched 20:48 GMT from Baikonur Space Center, Yevpatoriya, Kazakstan.
Crashed into Pacific Ocean on Nov 17, 1996 at approximately 1:19 pm GMT.
Location: East of Australia. Probable booster rocket failure.
Mars Pathfinder USA – Dec 4, 1996 – Mars lander
Launched at 1:58:07 EST.
The primary advance in this mission involves the use of a mobile rover
to explore surface terrain.
Cassini USA+ – Oct 15, 1997 – Saturn explorer
launched at 4:43 am EDT. Launch complex 40.
This multinational project has been most infamous for the controversy
over launching such a large quantity of plutonium. It has an extremely
complex trajectory which will take it through much of the Solar System before reaching Saturn.
Nozomi JAP – Jul 3, 1998 – Mars orbiter
launched 18:12 UT. Kagoshima Space Center on the island of Kyushu.
Japan’s first Mars mission. Arrival planned for October 1999. Nozomi
is scheduled to study Mars’ atmosphere, charged particles, and magnetic
field.
Deep Space 1 USA – Oct 24, 1998 – Asteroid flyby
launched 8:08 am EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Scheduled fly by asteroid 1992 KD in July 1999.
The xenon ion engine shut down 4-1/2 minutes after startup on Tuesday,
Nov. 10, 1998 at 2:30 p.m. EST. Unless this is corrected, the flyby cannot occur.

Mars Climate Orbiter US – Dec 11, 1998 – Mars orbiter
launched 13:45:51 EST. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Scheduled to reach Mars in September 1999. Will map martian climate, and
serve as a relay station for the Mars Polar Lander.
A braking rocket was fired on Sep 23, 1999 at 5:01 am EDT during a period
of communication blackout, and the Orbiter did not check in 20 minutes
later at the end of the blackout period. Cause unknown; trajectory of MCO
unknown, although it it thought that it did not crash into the Martian
surface. The bracking rocket was programmed to fire because the craft had
gotten off-course, for unknown reasons.

Mars Polar Lander US – Jan 3, 1999 – Mars lander
launched 15:21:10 EST. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
Lost on descent to Martian surface on 3 December 1999. Flight controllers at the
JPL estimate that the lander reached the Martian surface at 76.1 degrees South,
195.3 deg. West at 3:01 p.m. EST. Its subsequent fate is unknown.

Stardust US – Feb 7, 1999 – Comet sampler
launched 16:04:15 EST. Pad 17A
Scheduled to bring back cometary dust sample.

Quick Scatterometer US – Jun 19, 1999 – radar over Earth
launched 7:15 pm PDT. Launch Complex 4 West, Vandenberg

Mars Odyssey US – Apr 7, 2001 – Mars mapping
launched 11:02 EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.

Galaxy Evolution Explorer US – Apr 28, 2003 – orbiting space telescope
launched approx. 9 am EDT. Cape Canaveral Air Station, FL.
experienced excessive high-voltage current draw on March 30, 2006.

Mars Express ESA – Jun 2, 2003 – Mars orbiter & lander
launched 17:45 UT from Baikonur, Kazakhstan
entered orbit 25 December 2003
Beagle orbiter lost after release from orbiter

Deep Impact US – Jan 12, 2005 – comet flyby and impact
launched 1:47:08 pm EST Pad 17-B at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, FL.
Released impactor July 4, 2005 at 1:52 am EDT.
Found water on Comet Tempel 1.

Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter US – Aug 12, 2005 – telescope to Mars
launched 7:43 am EDT Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Venus Express ESA – Nov 9, 2005 – Venus orbiter
launched 3:33 am UT Baikonur, Kazakhstan
reached final orbit May 7, 2006

New Horizons US – Jan 19, 2006 – Pluto mission
launched 2:00:00 pm EST Launch Complex 41 at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station.

Lunar Exploration Page

Lunar Exploration Timeline

Note: Launches of Soviet spacecraft occurred from the Baikonur Cosmodrome, Tyuratam, USSR, unless noted.
Launches of US spacecraft occurred from Cape Canaveral, FL, unless noted.

Luna 2 USSR – Sep 12, 1959 – Impact
Impacted Moon 13 Sep 1959 at 22:02:04 UT
Latitude 29.10 N, Longitude 0.00 – Palus Putredinis
Luna 3 USSR – Oct 4, 1959 – Probe
Launched at 2:24:00 UT.
Ranger 7 USA – Jul 28, 1964 – Impact
Impacted Moon 31 July 1964 at 13:25:49 UT
Latitude 10.35 S, Longitude 339.42 E – Mare Cognitum (Sea of Clouds)
Ranger 8 USA – Feb 17, 1965 – Impact
Impacted Moon 20 February 1965 at 09:57:37 UT
Latitude 2.67 N, Longitude 24.65 E – (Sea of Tranquility
Ranger 9 USA – Mar 21, 1965 – Impact
Impacted Moon 24 March 1965 at 14:08:20 UT
Latitude 12.83 S, Longitude 357.63 E – Alphonsus
Zond 3 USSR – Jul 18, 1965 – Flyby
Launched at 14:38:00 UT
Luna 9 USSR – Jan 31, 1966 – Lander
Launched at 11:45:00 UT
Landed on Moon 03 Feb 1966 at 18:44:52 UT
Latitude 7.08 N, Longitude 295.63 E – Oceanus Procellarum
1st successful lunar landing.
Luna 10 USSR – Mar 31, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 10:48:00 UT
Surveyor 1 USA – May 30, 1966 – Lander
Landed 02 June 1966, 06:17:37 UT
Latitude 2.45 S, Longitude 316.79 E – Flamsteed P
Lunar Orbiter 1 USA – Aug 10, 1966 – Orbiter
Luna 11 USSR – Aug 24, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 8:09:00 UT
Surveyor 2 USA – Sep 20, 1966 – Lander (aborted)
Crashed on Moon 22 September 1966
Engine failed to ignite – southeast of Copernicus Crater
Luna 12 USSR – Oct 22, 1966 – Orbiter
Launched at 08:38:00 UT.
Lunar Orbiter 2 USA – Nov 6, 1966 – Orbiter
Luna 13 USSR – Dec 21, 1966 – Lander
Launched at 10:19:00 UT
Landed on Moon 24 Dec 1966 at 18:01:00 UT
Latitude 18.87 N, 297.95 E – Oceanus Procellarum
Lunar Orbiter 3 USA – Feb 4, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 3 USA – Apr 17, 1967 – Lander
Landed 20 April 1967, 00:04:53 UT
Latitude 2.94 S, Longitude 336.66 E – Oceanus Procellarum
Lunar Orbiter 4 USA – May 8, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 4 USA – July 14, 1967 – Lander (aborted)
Radio contact lost 17 July 1967
2.5 minutes from touchdown – Sinus Medii
Lunar Orbiter 5 USA – Aug 1, 1967 – Orbiter
Surveyor 5 USA – Sep 8, 1967 – Lander
Landed 11 September 1967, 00:46:44 UT
Latitude 1.41 N, Longitude 23.18 E – Sea of Tranquility
Surveyor 6 USA – Nov 7, 1967 – Lander
Landed 10 November 1967, 01:01:06 UT
Latitude 0.46 N, Longitude 358.63 E – Sinus Medii
Surveyor 7 USA – Jan 7, 1968 – Lander
Landed 10 January 1968, 01:05:36 UT
Latitude 41.01 S, Longitude 348.59 E – Tycho North Rim
Luna 14 USSR – Apr 7, 1968 – Orbiter
Zond 5 USSR – Sep 15, 1968 – Return Probe
Satellite contained living biological specimens.
Orbited Moon on Sep 18th. Returned to Earth Sep 21st with cargo intact.
Zond 6 USSR – Nov 10, 1968 – Return Probe
Like Zond 5, contained a biological payload, but the emphasis was more on
surface photography. Orbited Moon Nov 14th; landed in USSR Nov 17th.
Apollo 8 USA – Dec 21, 1968 – Manned Orbiter
Apollo 10 USA – May 18, 1969 – Orbiter
Apollo 11 USA – Jul 16, 1969 – Manned Landing
Zond 7 USSR – Aug 7, 1969 – Return Probe
Flew by Moon on Aug 11; returned to USSR on Aug 14th.
Apollo 12 USA – Nov 14, 1969 – Manned Landing
Apollo 13 USA – Apr 11, 1970 – Manned Landing (aborted)
Luna 16 USSR – Sep 12, 1970 – Sample Return
Landed on Moon 20 Sep 1970 at 05:18:00 UT
Latitude 0.68 S, Longitude 56.30 E – Mare Fecunditatis
Ascent stage landed in USSR on 24 Sep 1970
Zond 8 USSR – Oct 20, 1970 – Return Probe
Flew by Moon Oct 24; returned to Indian Ocean Oct 27th.
Luna 17 USSR – Nov 10, 1970 – Rover
Landed on Moon 17 Nov 1970 at 03:47:00 UT
Latitude 38.28 N, Longitude 325.00 E – Mare Imbrium
Ceased operating Oct 4, 1971
Apollo 14 USA – Jan 31, 1971 – Manned Landing
Apollo 15 USA – Jul 26, 1971 – Manned Landing
Luna 19 USSR – Sep 28, 1971 – Orbiter
Luna 20 USSR – Feb 14, 1972 – Sample Return
Landed on Moon 21 Feb 1972 at 19:19:00 UT
Latitude 3.57 N, Longitude 56.50 E – Mare Fecunditatis
Ascent stage landed in USSR on Feb 25, 1972
Apollo 16 USA – Apr 16, 1972 – Manned Landing
Apollo 17 USA – Dec 7, 1972 – Manned Landing
Luna 21 USSR – Jan 8, 1973 – Rover
Landed on Moon 15 Jan 1973 at 23:35:00 UT
Latitude 25.51 N, Longitude 30.38 E – Mare Serenitatis
Luna 22 USSR – Jun 2, 1974 – Orbiter
Luna 24 USSR – Aug 14, 1976 – Sample Return
Launched at 14:04:00 UT
Landed on Moon 18 Aug 1976 at 02:00:00 UT
Latitude 12.25 N, Longitude 62.20 E – Mare Crisium
Ascent stage landed in USSR on Aug 22, 1976.
Galileo USA – Oct 18, 1989 – Flyby
Launched at 23:23:40 UT from Atlantis Shuttle.
Imaged Moon on its trajectory to Jupiter.
Lunar Prospector USA – Jan 6, 1998 – Lander
Launched at 9:28:44 p.m. EST from Complex 46.

Space Accident Data: Non-planetary Missions

Clementine USA – Jan 25, 1994 – Orbiter
Launched at 16:34 UT from Vandenburg AFB
Originally slated to also flyby asteroid 1620 Geographos, a malfunction
in a thruster on May 7, 1994 14:39 UT resulted in abort of the asteroid
part of the mission.
GPS/Delta USA – Jan 25, 1997 – Earth satellite
Launched at 11:28 am EST from Cape Canaveral.
Exploded 21 sec after launch, spraying debris over the launch site and
neighboring Brevard County.
Titan 4A USA – Aug 12, 1998 – Top Secret Earth satellite
Launched at 7:30 am EDT from Cape Canaveral.
Rocket began to self-destruct 40 seconds into launch; had some problems
with toxic fuel debris. Cause of crash: electrical outage just before explosion.
Delta III USA – Aug 26, 1998 – Inaugural flight
Launched at 9:17 pm EDT from Cape Canaveral.
Exploded 1 minute into flight.
SMART-1 ESA – Sep 27, 2003 – lunar science
Launched 23:14 UT Kourou, French Guiana.

Space Data: Human Flight

Note: For more information about the Shuttle Program, See NASA’s Shuttle web page .

Sputnik 1 OCT 4, 1957 21: 0: 0 GMT Tyuratam USSR 45 N 38.0 63 E 16.0
Source: Campion’s citation; with Tyuratam coordinates

Explorer 1 JAN 31, 1958 22:48 EST 1st US satellite. Launched from Pad 26A. Discovered Van Allen belt of radiation.

Vanguard 1 MAR 17, 1958 7:15 EST 1st separable orbiting satellite (i.e., not attached to booster). Still functioning.

NASA JUL 29, 1958 12: 0: 0 EDT WASHINGTON, DC 38 N 54.0 77 W 2.0 Noon chart. Date NASA charter signed by Eisenhower. Time unknown.

NASA – 1st Day OCT 1, 1958 9: 0: 0 EDT WASHINGTON, DC 38 N 54.0 77 W 2.07F Source: Estimate 9:00 am. First day of business for NASA.

Vostok & Voskhod Programs: USSR

Vostok 1 APR 12, 1961 9:07 Moscow Time First manned space flight; Yuri Gagarin

Vostok 2 AUG 6, 1961 9:40 M.T. reached orbit Gherman Titov

Vostok 3 AUG 11, 1962 11:30 Dual flight with Vostok 4; Andrian Nikolayev

Vostok 4 AUG 12, 1962 11:02 Passed within 6.5 km of Vostok 3; Ravel Romanovich Popovich

Vostok 5 JUN 14, 1963 14:59 Dual flight with Vostok 6; Valeri Fyodorovich Bykovsky

Vostok 6 JUN 16, 1963 12:30 First woman in space; Valentina Tereshkova

Voskhod 1 OCT 12, 1964 First 3 man crew; (squeezed into a stripped Vostok craft with no spacesuits nor ejection seats.) V.M. Komarov, K.P. Feoktistov, B.B. Yegorov

Voskhod 2 MAR 18, 1965 First space walk; Aleksei Leonov (walker), P.I.Belyavev

Mir Space Station: USSR/Russia

Mir Station: last crew exit AUG 27, 1999 21:14 GMT Undocked from space station.
Soyuz capsule landed in Kazakstan Aug 28, 1999 00:35 GMT.

Mercury & X-15 Programs: USA

Freedom 7 MAY 5, 1961 9:34:00 EST 1st manned Mercury Mission. A.B. Shepard

Liberty Bell 7 JUL 21, 1961 7:20:00 EST V.I. Grissom

Friendship 7 FEB 20, 1962 9:47:00 EST 1st Mercury orbital flight. J.H. Glenn

Aurora 7 MAY 24, 1962 7:45:00 EST M.S. Carpenter

X-15 No. 3, Flight 7 JUL 17, 1962 The Air Force had designated 50 miles altitude as the limit to exceed to get astronaut’s wings; and this flight, launched midair from a flight originating from Edwards A.F. Base, exceeded 59 miles. Pilot: R.M. White

Sigma 7 OCT 3, 1962 8:15:00 EST W.M. Schirra

X-15 No. 3, Flight 14 JAN 17, 1963 J.A. Walker

Faith 7 MAY 15, 1963 9:04:00 EST L.G. Cooper

X-15 No. 3, Flight 20 JUN 27, 1963 R.A. Rushworth

X-15 No. 3, Flight 21 JUL 19, 1963 J.A. Walker

X-15 No. 3, Flight 22 AUG 22, 1963 J.A. Walker

Gemini Program: USA

Gemini 3 MAR 23, 1965 9:24:00 EST V.I. Grissom & J.W. Young

Gemini 4 JUN 3, 1965 10:16:00 EST J.A. McDivitt & E.H. White

Gemini 5 AUG 21, 1965 8:59:59 EST L.G. Cooper & C. Conrad

Gemini 7 DEC 4, 1965 14:30:04 EST F. Borman & J.L. Lovell

Gemini 6 (GT-6A) DEC 15, 1965 8:37:26 EST W.M. Schirra & T.P. Stafford

Gemini 8 MAR 16, 1966 11:41:00 EST N.A. Armstrong & D.R. Scott

Gemini 9 JUN 3, 1966 8:39:33 EST T.P. Stafford & E.A. Cernan

Gemini 10 JUL 18, 1966 17:20:27 EST J.W. Young & M. Collins

Gemini 11 SEP 12, 1966 9:42:27 EST C. Conrad & R.F. Gordon

Gemini 12 NOV 11, 1966 15:46:33 EST J.A. Lovell & E.E. Aldrin

Apollo Program: USA

Apollo Fatalities JAN 27, 1967 18:30:25 EST Scheduled as Apollo 1. V.I. Grissom, J.W. Young & Chafee. Died in fire.

Apollo 7 OCT 11, 1968 11: 2:45 EDT 1st Apollo mission

Apollo 8 DEC 21, 1968 7:51: 0 EST Borman-Lovell-Anders

Apollo 9 MAR 3, 1969 11: 7: 0 EST McDivitt-Scott-Schweickart

Apollo 10 MAY 18, 1969 12:49: 0 EDT Stafford-Young-Cernan

Apollo 11 JUL 16, 1969 9:32: 0 EDT 1st Moon landing: Armstrong-Collins-Aldrin
Moon Landing JUL 20, 1969 20:17:40 GMT
1st Footstep on Moon JUL 20, 1969 22:56:20 EDT

Apollo 12 NOV 14, 1969 11:22: 0 EST 2nd Moon landing: Conrad – Gordon – Bean

Apollo 13 APR 11, 1970 14:13: 0 EST Explosion on-board: Lovell – Swigert – Haise

Apollo 14 JAN 31, 1971 16: 3: 0 EST Shepard – Roosa – Mitchell; returned to the Moon

Apollo 15 JUL 26, 1971 9:34: 0 EDT Scott – Irwin – Worden

Apollo 16 APR 16, 1972 12:54: 0 EST Young – Mattingly – Duke

Apollo 17 DEC 7, 1972 0:33: 0 EST Cernan – Evans – Schmitt: last Lunar mission

Space Shuttle Program: USA

STS-1 (Columbia) APR 12, 1981 7: 0:03 EST Pad 39A: John Young & Robert Crippen

STS-2 (Columbia) NOV 12, 1981 10:09:59 EST Pad 39A: Joseph Engle & Richard Truly Mission cut short because of fuel cell malfunction.

STS-3 (Columbia) MAR 22, 1982 11: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: Jack Lousma & Charles Fullerton

STS-4 (Columbia) JUN 27, 1982 11: 0: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Ken Mattingly & Hank Hartsfield

STS-5 (Columbia) NOV 11, 1982 7:19: 0 EST Pad 39A: Vance Brand, Robert Overmyer, William Lenoir & Joseph Allen

STS-6 (Challenger) APR 4, 1983 13:30: 0 EST Pad 39A: Paul Weitz, Karol Bobko, Franklin Musgrave & Donald Peterson

STS-7 (Challenger) JUN 18, 1983 7:33: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Robert Crippen, Rick Hauck, John Fabian, Sally Ride & Norman Thagard

STS-8 (Challenger) AUG 30, 1983 2:32: 0 EDT Pad 39A: Richard Truly, Daniel Brandenstein, Dale Gardner, Guion Bluford & Wm Thornton

STS-9 (Columbia) NOV 28, 1983 11: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: John Young, B.H. Shaw, O.K. Garriott, R.A.R. Parker, U. Merbold & B.K. Lichten

STS-41B (Challenger) FEB 3, 1984 8: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: V.D. Brand, R.L. Gibson, B. McCandless, R.E. McNair & R.L. Stewart

STS-41C (Challenger) APR 6, 1984 8:58: 0 EST Pad 39A: R. Crippen, F. Scobee, T. Hart, J. van Hoften & G. Nelson

STS-41D (Discovery) AUG 30, 1984 8:41:50 EDT Pad 39A: H. Hartsfield, M. Coats, J. Resnik, S. Hawley, R. Mullane & C. Walker

STS-41G (Challenger) OCT 13, 1984 7:03: 0 EDT Pad 39A: R. Crippen, J. McBride, S. Ride, D. Leestma, K. Sullivan, M. Garneau & P.C. Power

STS-51A (Discovery) NOV 8, 1984 7:15: 0 EST Pad 39A: F. Hauck, D. Walker, J. Allen, A. Fisher, D. Gardner & C. Walker

STS-51C (Discovery) JAN 27, 1985 14:50: 0 EST Pad 39A: K. Mattingly, L. Shriver, E. Onizuka, J. Buchli & G. Payton

STS-51D (Discovery) APR 12, 1985 8:59:05 EST Pad 39A: K.J. Bobko, D.E. Williams, S.D. Griggs, J.A. Hoffman, M.R. Seddon, E. Garn & C.D. Walker

STS-51B (Challenger) APR 29, 1985 12:02:18 EDT Pad 39A: R.F. Overmyer, F.D. Gregory, N.E. Thagard, W.E. Thorton, D.L. Lind, L. van den Berg & T.G. Wang

STS-51G (Discovery) JUN 17, 1985 7:33: 0 EDT Pad 39A: D.C. Brandstein, J.O. Creighton, J.M. Fabian, S.W. Lucid, S.R. Nagel, P. Baudry & A.A. Al-Saud

STS-51F (Challenger) JUL 29, 1985 17: 0: 0 EDT Pad 39A: C.G. Fullerton, R.D. Bridges, A.W. England, K.G. Henize, F.S. Musgrave, L.W. Acton & J.-D. Bartoe

STS-51I (Discovery) AUG 27, 1985 6:58:01 EDT Pad 39A: J.H. Engle, R.O. Covey, W.F. Fisher, J.M. Lounge & J.D.A. van Hoften

STS-51J (Atlantis) OCT 3, 1985 11:15:30 EDT Pad 39A: K.J. Bobko, R.J. Grabe, D.C. Hilmers, R.L. Stewart & W. Pailes

STS-61A (Challenger) OCT 30, 1985 12: 0: 0 EST Pad 39A: H.W. Hartsfield, S.R. Nagel, G.S. Bluford, J.F. Buchli, B.J. Dunbar, R. Furrer, E.W. Messerschmid & W. Ockels

STS-61B (Atlantis) NOV 27, 1985 19:29: 0 EST Pad 39A: B.H. Shaw, B.D. O’Connor, M.L. Cleave, S.C. Spring, J.L. Ross, R.N. Vela & C.D. Walker

STS-61C (Columbia) JAN 12, 1986 6:55: 0 EST Pad 39A: R.L. Gibson, C.F. Bolden, S.A. Hawley, G.D. Nelson, F.R. Chang-Diaz, R.J. Cenker & C.W. Nelson

STS-51L (Challenger) JAN 28, 1986 11:38: 0 EST Pad 39B: F.R. Scobee, M.J. Smith, J.A. Resnik, R.E. McNair, E.S. Onizuka, G.B. Jarvis & S.C. McAuliffe
Explosion JAN 28, 1986 11:39:13 EST 18 miles from Pad. Cause: O-Ring failure in Solid Rocket Booster

STS-26 (Discovery) SEP 29, 1988 11:37: 0 EDT Pad 39B: F.H. Hauck, R.O. Covey, J.M. Lounge, G.D. Nelson & D.C. Hilmers

STS-27 (Atlantis) DEC 2, 1988 9:30:34 EST Pad 39B: R.L. Gibson, G.S. Gardner, R.M. Mullane, J.L. Ross & W.M. Shepherd

STS-29 (Discovery) MAR 13, 1989 9:57: 0 EST Pad 39B: M.L. Coats, J.E. Blaha, J.P. Bagian, J.F. Buchli & R.C. Springer

STS-30 (Atlantis) MAY 4, 1989 14:48:59 EDT Pad 39B: D.M. Walker, R.J. Grabe, N.E. Thagard, M.L. Cleave & M.C. Lee Launched Magellan spacecraft to Venus

STS-28 (Columbia) AUG 8, 1989 8:37: 0 EDT Pad 39B: B.H. Shaw, R.N. Richards, J.C. Adamson, D.C. Leestma & M.N. Brown

STS-34 (Atlantis) OCT 18, 1989 12:53:40 EDT Pad 39B: D.E. Williams, M.J. McCulley, F.R. Chang-Diaz, S.W. Lucid & E.S. Baker Launched Galileo spacecraft to Jupiter

STS-33 (Discovery) NOV 22, 1989 19:23:30 EST Pad 39B: F.D. Gregory, J.E. Blaha, F.S. Musgrave, M.L. Carter & K.C. Thornton

STS-32 (Columbia) JAN 9, 1990 7:35: 0 EST Pad 39A: D.C. Brandenstein, J.D. Wetherbee, B.J. Dunbar, G.D. Low & M.S. Ivins

STS-36 (Atlantis) FEB 28, 1990 2:50:22 EST Pad 39A: J.O. Creighton, J.H. Casper, R.M. Mullane, D.C. Hilmers & P.J. Thuot

STS-31 (Discovery) APR 24, 1990 8:33:51 EDT Pad 39B: L.J. Shriver, C.F. Bolden, S.A. Hawley, B. McCandless & K.D. Sullivan

STS-41 (Discovery) OCT 6, 1990 7:47:15 EDT Pad 39B: R.N. Richards, R.D. Cabana, W.M. Shepherd, B.E. Melnick & T.D. Akers Launched Ulysses spacecraft to Sun

STS-38 (Atlantis) NOV 15, 1990 18:48:13 EST Pad 39A: R.O. Covey, F.L. Culbertson, R.C. Springer, C.J. Meade & C.D. Gemar

STS-35 (Columbia) DEC 2, 1990 1:49:01 EST Pad 39B: V.D. Brand, G.S. Gardner, J.A. Hoffman, J.M. Lounge, R.A. Parker, S.T. Durrance & R.A. Parise

STS-37 (Atlantis) APR 5, 1991 9:22:44 EST Pad 39B: S.R. Nagel, K.D. Cameron, J.L. Ross, J. Apt & L.M. Godwin

STS-39 (Discovery) APR 28, 1991 7:33:14 EDT Pad 39A: M.L. Coats, L.B. Hammond, G.S. Bluford, G.J. Harbaugh, R.J. Hieb, D.R. McMonagle & C.L. Veach

STS-40 (Columbia) JUN 5, 1991 9:24:51 EDT Pad 39B: B.D. O’Connor, S.M. Gutierrez, M.R. Seddon, J.P. Bagian, T.E. Jernigan, F.D. Gaffney & M.-H. Fulford

STS-43 (Atlantis) AUG 2, 1991 11:01:59 EDT Pad 39A: J.E. Blaha, M.A. Baker, S.W. Lucid, J.C. Adamson & G.D. Low

STS-48 (Discovery) SEP 12, 1991 19:11:04 EDT Pad 39A: J.O. Creighton, K.S. Reightler, J.F. Buchli, C.D. Gernar & M.N. Brown

STS-44 (Atlantis) NOV 24, 1991 18:44: 0 EST Pad 39A: F.D. Gregory, T.T. Henricks, F.S. Musgrave, M. Runco, J.S. Voss & T.J. Hennen

STS-42 (Discovery) JAN 22, 1992 9:52:3 EST Pad 39A: R.J. Grabe, S.S. Oswald, N.E. Thagard, D.C. Hilmers, W.F. Ready, R.L. Bondar & U.D. Merbold

STS-45 (Atlantis) MAR 24, 1992 8:13: 0 EST Pad 39A: C.F. Bolden, B. Duffy, K.D. Sullivan, D.C. Leestma, C.M. Foale, B.K. Lichtenberg & D.D. Frimout

STS-49 (Endeavour) MAY 7, 1992 19:40: 0 EDT Pad 39B: D.C. Brandenstein, K.P. Chilton, P.J. Thuot, K.C. Thornton, R.J. Hieb, T.D. Akers & B.E. Melnick Rescued INTELSAT VI

STS-50 (Columbia) JUN 25, 1992 12:12:23 EDT Pad 39A: R.N. Richards, K.D. Bowersox, B.J. Dunbar, E.S. Baker, C.J. Meade, L.J. DeLucas & E.H. Trinh Microgravity Laboratory-I

STS-46 (Atlantis) JUL 31, 1992 9:56:48 EDT Pad 39B: L.J. Shriver, A.M. Allen, J.A. Hoffman, F.R. Chang-Diaz, C. Nicollier, M.S. Ivins & F. Malerba Tethered satellite system

STS-47 (Endeavour) SEP 12, 1992 10:23: 0 EDT Pad 39B: R.L. Gibson, C.L. Brown, M.C. Lee, N.J. Davis, J. Apt, M.C. Jemison & M. Mohri Spacelab-J (Japanese)

STS-52 (Columbia) OCT 22, 1992 13:09:40 EDT Pad 39B: J.B. Wetherbee, M.A. Baker, C.L. Veach, W.M. Shepherd, T.E. Jernigan & S.G. MacLean Laser Geodynamic Satellite II

STS-53 (Discovery) DEC 2, 1992 8:24: 0 EST Pad 39A: D.M. Walker, R.D. Cabana, G.S. Bluford, J.S. Voss & M.R. Clifford Classified Department of Defense primary payload,

STS-54 (Endeavour) JAN 13, 1993 8:59:30 EST Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, D.R. McMonagle, M. Runco, G.J. Harbaugh & S.J. Helms Tracking and Data Relay Satellite

STS-56 (Discovery) APR 8, 1993 1:29: 0 EDT Pad 39B: K.D. Cameron, S.S. Oswald, C.M. Foale, K.D. Cockrell & E. Ochoa Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Science-2

STS-55 (Columbia) APR 26, 1993 10:50: 0 EDT Pad 39A: S.R. Nagel, T.T. Henricks, J.L. Ross, C.J. Precort, B.A. Harris, U. Walter & H. Schlegel Spacelab (German)

STS-57 (Endeavour) JUN 21, 1993 9:07: 0 EDT Pad 39B: R.J. Grabe, B. Duffy, G.D. Low, N.J. Sherlock, P.J. Wisoff & J.E. Voss SPACEHAB

STS-51 (Discovery) SEP 12, 1993 7:45: 0 EDT Pad 39B: F.L. Culbertson, W.F. Readdy, J.H. Newman, D.W. Bursch & C.E. Walz Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS)

STS-58 (Columbia) OCT 18, 1993 10:53: 0 EDT Pad 39B: J.E. Blaha, R.A. Searfoss, M.R. Seddon, W.S. McArthur, D.A. Wolf, S.W. Lucid & M. Fettman life sciences research

STS-61 (Endeavour) DEC 2, 1993 4:26: 0 EST Pad 39B: R.O. Covey, K.D. Bowersox, F.S. Musgrave, K.C. Thorton, C. Nicollier, J.A. Hoffman & T.D. Akers Hubble Space Telescope Servicing – 1

STS-60 (Discovery) FEB 3, 1994 7:10:05 EST Pad 39A: C.F. Bolden, K.S. Reightler, N.J. Davis, R.M. Sega, F.R. Chang-Diaz & S. Krikalev Wake Shield Facility

STS-62 (Columbia) MAR 4, 1994 8:53:01 EST Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, A.M. Allen, P.J. Thuot, C.D. Gemar & M.S. Ivins Extended Duration Orbiter (EDO) flights

STS-59 (Endeavour) APR 9, 1994 7:05: 0 EDT Pad 39A: S.M. Gutierrez, K.P. Chilton, L.M. Godwin, J. Apt, M.R. Clifford & T.D. Jones Space Radar Laboratory (SRL) payload

STS-65 (Columbia) JUL 8, 1994 0:43: 0 EDT Pad 39A: R.D. Cabana, J.D. Halsell, R.J. Hieb, C.E. Walz, L. Chiao, D.A. Thomas, C. Naito-Mukai & J.-J. Favier Spacelab – International Microgravity Laboratory

STS-64 (Discovery) SEP 9, 1994 18:22:35 EDT Pad 39B: R.N. Richards, L.B. Hammond, J.M. Linenger, S.J. Helms, C.J. Meade & M.C. Lee LIDAR In-Space Technology Experiment (LITE)

STS-68 (Endeavour) SEP 30, 1994 7:16: 0 EDT Pad 39A: M.A. Baker, T.W. Wilcutt, T.D. Jones, S.L. Smith, D.W. Bursch & P.J.K. Wisoff Space Radar Laboratory (SRL)

STS-66 (Atlantis) NOV 3, 1994 11:59:43 EDT Pad 39B: D.R. McMonagle, C.L. Brown, E. Ochoa, S.E. Parazynski, J.R. Tanner & J.-F. Clervoy Atmospheric Laboratory for Applications and Sciences – 3

STS-63 (Discovery) FEB 3, 1995 12:22:03 EST Pad 39B: J.D. Wetherbee, E.M. Collins, C.M. Foale, J.E. Voss, B.A. Harris & V.G. Titov Mir Rendevous

STS-67 (Endeavour) MAR 2, 1995 1:38:34 EST Pad 39A: S.S. Oswald, W.G. Gregory, T.A. Jernigan, J.M. Grunsfeld, W.B. Lawrence, R.A. Parise & S.T. Durrance Ultraviolet experiments

STS-71 (Atlantis) JUN 27, 1995 14:32:19 EDT Pad 39A: R.L. Gibson, C.J. Precourt, E.S. Baker, B.J. Dunbar, G.J. Harbaugh, A. Solovyev & N. Budarin (up), & N.E. Thagard, V. Dezhurov & G. Strekalov (down) 1st Mir Docking

STS-70 (Discovery) JUL 13, 1995 9:41:55 EDT Pad 39B: T.T. Henricks, K.R. Kregel, N.J. Currie, D.A. Thomas & M.E. Weber Tracking Data & Relay Satellite

STS-69 (Endeavour) SEP 7, 1995 11:09:00 EDT Pad 39A: D.M. Walker, K.D. Cockrell, J.S. Voss, J.H. Newman & M.L. Garnhardt Wake Shield Facility

STS-73 (Columbia) OCT 20, 1995 9:53:00 EDT Pad 39B: K.D. Bowersox, K.V. Rominger, K.C. Thornton, C.G. Coleman, M.E. Lopez-Alegria, F.W. Leslie & A. Sacco second US Microgravity Laboratory (USML-2)

STS-74 (Atlantis) NOV 12, 1995 7:30:43 EST Pad 39A: K.D. Cameron, J.D. Halsell, J.L. Ross, W.S. McArthur & C.A. Hadfield 2nd Mir Docking

STS-72 (Endeavour) JAN 11, 1996 4:41:00 EST Pad 39B: B. Duffy, B.W. Jett, L. Chiao, D.T. Barry, W.E. Scott & K. Wakata Capture and return Japanese microgravity research spacecraft

STS-75 (Columbia) FEB 22, 1996 15:18:00 EST Pad 39B: am Allen, S.J. Horowitz, F.R. Chang-Diaz, M. Cheli, J.A. Hoffman, C. Nicollier & U. Guidoni Tethered satellite experiments

STS-76 (Atlantis) MAR 22, 1996 3:13:04 EST Pad 39B: K.P. Chilton, R.A. Searfoss, S.W. Lucid (up), L.M. Godwin, M.R. Clifford & R.M. Sega 3rd Mir Docking

STS-77 (Endeavour) MAY 19, 1996 6:30:00 EDT Pad 39B: J.H. Casper, C.L. Brown, D.W. Bursch, M. Runco, M. Garneau & A.S.W. Thomas Commercial Spacehab research

STS-78 (Columbia) JUN 20, 1996 10:49:00 EDT Pad 39B: T.T. Henricks, K.R. Kregel, S.J. Helms, R.M. Linnehan, C.E. Brady, J.-J. Favier & R.B. Thirsk Life and Microgravity Spacelab (LMS) mission

STS-79 (Atlantis) SEP 16, 1996 4:54:49 EDT Pad 39A: W. F. Readdy, T.W. Wilcutt, T.D. Akers, J.E. Blaha (up), J. Apt, C.E. Walz & S.W. Lucid (down) 4th Mir Docking

STS-80 (Columbia) NOV 19, 1996 12:55:47 EST Pad 39B: K.D. Cockrell, R. Rominger, T.E. Jernigan, T.D. Jones & F.S. Musgrave Wake Shield Facility. Problems with door aborted space walks.

STS-81 (Atlantis) JAN 12, 1997 4:27:23 EST Pad 39B: M. Baker, B. Jett, J. Grunsfeld, M.S. Ivins, P.J. Wisoff & J.M. Linenger, J. Blaha 5th Mir Docking

STS-82 (Discovery) FEB 11, 1997 3:55:17 EST Pad 39A: K.D. Bowersox, S. Horowitz, M.C. Lee, S.A. Hawley, G.J. Harbaugh, S.L. Smith & J.R. Tanner Hubble Space Telescope Servicing – 2

STS-83 (Columbia) APR 4, 1997 14:20:32 EST Pad 39A: J.D. Halsell, S.L. Still, J.E. Voss, D.A. Thomas, M.L. Gernhardt, R. Crouch, G. Linteris Microgravity Science Laboratory – 1 Mission cut short because of fuel cell malfunction.

STS-84 (Atlantis) MAY 15, 1997 04:07:48 EDT Pad 39A: C.J. Precourt, E.M. Collins, C.M. Foale (up), C.I. Noriega, E.T. Lu, J.-F. Clervoy & E. Kondakova, J.M. Lineger (down) 6th Mir Docking & Spacehab module

STS-94 (Columbia) JUL 1, 1997 14:02:02 EDT Pad 39A: J.D. Halsell, S.L. Still, J.E. Voss, D.A. Thomas, M.L. Gernhardt, R. Crouch, G. Linteris Microgravity Science Laboratory – 1 This is the re-fly of Mission 83.

STS-85 (Discovery) AUG 7, 1997 10:41:00 EDT Pad 39A: Brown, Ashby, Davis, Curbeam, Robinson, Tryggvason CRISTA-SPAS – 2

STS-86 (Atlantis) SEP 25, 1997 22:34:19 EDT Pad 39A: J.D. Wetherbee, M.J. Bloomfield, V.G. Titov, S.E. Parazynski, J.-L.J.M. Chretien, W.B. Lawrence, D.A. Wolf (up), C.M. Foale (down) 7th Mir Docking & Spacehab module

STS-87 (Columbia) NOV 19, 1997 14:46:00 EST Pad 39B: K.R. Kregel, S.W. Lindsey, W.E. Scott, K. Chawla, T. Doi Solar Physics, Microgravity experiments. Failure on deployment of SPARTAN satellite on Nov 21, 1997 at 4:04 pm EST.

STS-89 (Endeavour) JAN 22, 1998 21:48:15 EST Pad 39A: Wilcutt, Edwards, Dunbar, Anderson, Reilly, Sharipov, Thomas (up), Wolf (down) 8th Mir Docking mission.

STS-90 (Columbia) APR 17, 1998 14:19 EDT Pad 39-B: R.A. Searfoss, S.D. Altman, R.M. Linnehan, D. Rhys Williams, K.P. Hire, J.C. Buckey, J.A. Pawelczyk Neurolab medical experiments.

STS-91 (Discovery) MAY 28, 1998 18:06:24 EDT Pad 39-A: C.J. Precourt, D.L. Pudwill Gorie, W.B. Lawrence, F.R. Chang-Diaz , J.L. Kavandi, V. V. Ryumin, A.S.W. Thomas (up) 9th Mir Docking mission.

STS-95 (Discovery) OCT 29, 1998 14:20:19 EST Pad 39-B: C.L. Brown, S.W. Lindsey, S.E. Parazynski, S.K. Robinson, P. Duque, C. Mukai, J.H. Glenn Spartan 201 Free Flyer, Spacehab, Medical experiments

STS-88 (Endeavour) DEC 4, 1998 3:35 EST Pad 39-A: R.D.Cabana, F.W.Sturckow, N.J.Currie, J.L.Ross, J.H.Newman, S.K.Krikalev 1st Flight of components for International Space Station.

STS-96 (Discovery) MAY 27, 1999 6:49 EDT Pad 39-B: K.V. Rominger, R.D. Husband, E. Ochoa, T.E. Jernigan, D.T. Barry, J. Payette, Y. Malenchenko Logistics and resupply to International Space Station.

STS-93 (Columbia) JUL 23, 1999 12:31 am EDT Pad 39-B: E.M.Collins, J.S.Ashby, S.A.Hawley, C.G. Coleman, M. Tognini Advanced X-ray Astrophysics Facility (Chandra). 1st Female Commander.

STS-103 (Discovery) DEC 19, 1999 19:50:00 EST Pad 39-B: Brown, Kelly, Smith, Foale, Grunsfeld, Nicollier, Clervoy. 3rd Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission (HST-3)

STS-99 (Endeavour) FEB 11, 2000 12:43 pm EST Pad 39-A: K.R. Kregel, D.L. Pudwill Gorie, J.L. Kavandi, J.E. Voss, M. Mohri, G.P.J. Thiele. Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) to perform high-resolution digital topographic mapping of the Earth.

STS-101 (Atlantis) MAY 19, 2000 6:11 am EDT Pad 39-B: J.D. Halsell, S.J. Horowitz, M.E. Weber, J. N. Williams, J.S. Voss, S.J. Helms, Y.V. Usachev 3rd International Space Station Flight

STS-106 (Atlantis) SEP 8, 2000 8:45:47 am EDT Pad 39-A: Wilcutt, Altman, Lu, Malenchenko, Morukov, Mastracchio, Burbank Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-92 (Discovery) OCT 11, 2000 7:17 pm EDT Pad 39-A: B. Duffy, P.A. Melroy, K. Wakata, L. Chiao, P.J.K. Wisoff, M.E. Lopez-Alegria, W.S. McArthur Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-97 (Endeavour) NOV 30, 2000 10:06 pm EST Pad 39-B: B. Jett, M. Bloomfield, J. Tanner, C. Noriega, M. Garneau Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-98 (Atlantis) FEB 7, 2001 6:13 pm EST Pad 39-A: K. Cockrell, M. Polansky, R. Curbeam, T. Jones, M. Ivins Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-102 (Discovery) MAR 8, 2001 6:42:09:059 am EST Pad 39-B: J. Wetherbee, J. Kelly, A. Thomas, P. Richards J. Voss, S. Helms and Y. Usachev to go up to Alpha to replace W. Shepherd, Y. Gidzenko, and S. Krikalev. Space Station Assembly Flight

STS-100 (Endeavour) APR 19, 2001 2:40:42 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Rominger, Ashby, Hadfield, Parazynski, Phillips, Guidoni, Lonchakov 9th ISS Flight

STS-104 (Atlantis) JUL 12, 2001 5:03:59 am EDT Pad 39-B: Lindsey, Hobaugh, Kavandi, Gernhardt, Reilly 10th ISS Flight

STS-105 (Discovery) AUG 10, 2001 5:10:14 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Horowitz, Struckow, Barry, Forrester; (up) Culbertson, Dezhurov, Turin (down) Voss, Helms, Usachev 11th ISS Flight

STS-108 (Endeavour) DEC 05, 2001 5:19 pm EST Pad 39-B: Gorie, Kelly, Godwin, Tani; (up) Onufrienko, Bursch, Walz; (down) Culbertson, Dezhurov, Turin 12th ISS Flight

STS-109 (Columbia) MAR 1, 2002 6:22:02 am EST Pad 39-A: Altman, Carey, Grunsfeld, Currie, Newman, Linnehan, Massimino Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission 3B

STS-110 (Atlantis) APR 8, 2002 4:44:19 pm EDT Pad 39-B: Bloomfield, Frick, Ross, Smith, Ochoa, Morin, Walheim 13th ISS Flight

STS-111 (Endeavour) JUN 5, 2002 5:22:49 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Cockrell, Lockhart, Chang-Diaz, Perrin; Korzin, Whitson, Treschev (up); Onufrienko, Bursch, Walz (down) 14th ISS Flight

STS-112 (Atlantis) OCT 7, 2002 3:45:51.074 pm EDT Pad 39-A: Ashby, Melroy, Wolf, Sellers, Magnus, Yurchikhin 15th ISS flight

STS-113 (Endeavour) NOV 24, 2002 7:49:47 pm EST Pad 39B: Wetherbee, Lockhart, Lopez-Alegria, Herrington; (up) Bowersox, Budarin, Pettit; (down) Korzun, Whitson, Treschev 16th ISS flight

STS-107 (Columbia) JAN 16, 2003 10:39 am EST Pad 39-B: Husband, McCool, Anderson, Chawla, Brown, Clark, Ramon Research Mission, Freestar.
Shuttle disintegrated over Texas with communication lost Feb 1, 2003 9:00 am EST, approximately 16 minutes before scheduled landing. 1st sign of difficulty 8:52 am EST over Eastern California/Western Nevada.

STS-114 (Discovery) JUL 26, 2005 10:39 am EDT Pad 39-B: E. Collins, J. Kelly, W. Lawrence, S. Robinson, A. Thomas, C. Camarda and S. Noguchi. Return to Space Mission and International Space Station resupply.

STS-121 (Discovery) JUL 4, 2006 2:37:55 pm EDT Pad 39-B: S. Lindsey, M. Kelly, M. Fossum, L. Nowak, S. Wilson, P. Sellers, T. Reiter (up). Return to Space Mission and International Space Station resupply.

STS-115 (Atlantis) SEP 9, 2006 11:15 am EDT Pad 39-B: B. Jett, C. Ferguson, J. Tanner, D. Burbank, S. MacLean, H. Stefanyshyn-Piper. International Space Station construction and resupply.

STS-116 (Discovery) DEC 9, 2006 8:47 pm EST Pad 39-B: M. Polansky, W. Oefelein, R. Curbeam, J. Higginbotham, N. Patrick, C. Fuglesang.
Twentieth space station flight (12A.1), P5 Truss, SPACEHAB

STS-117 (Atlantis) JUN 8, 2007 7:38 pm EDT Pad 39-B: F. Sturckow, L. Archambault, J. Reilly II, P. Forrester, S. Swanson, J. Olivas.
21st space station flight(13A), S3/S4 Truss. Did repair work on Shuttle during one of the construction spacewalks.

STS-118 (Endeavor) AUG 8, 2007 6:36 pm EDT Pad 39-A: S. Kelly, C. Hobaugh, R. Mastracchio, D. Williams, B. Morgan, T. Caldwell, B. Drew. 22nd space station flight: third starboard truss segment.

STS-120 (Discovery) OCT 23, 2007 11:38 am EDT Pad 39-A: P.A. Melroy, G.D. Zamka, S.E. Parazynski, D.H. Wheelock, S.D. Wilson, P.A. Nespoli, D.M. Tani, C.C. Anderson.
23nd space station flight: Italian-built multi-port module. Tani replaces Anderson aboard Space Station.

STS-122 (Atlantis) FEB 7, 2008 2:45 pm EST Pad 39-A: S.N. Frick, A.G. Poindexter, R.J. Walheim, S.G. Love, L.D. Melvin, H.Schlegel, D.M. Tani, L. Eyharts.
24th space station flight: ESA’s Columbus Laboratory. Eyharts replaces Tani aboard Space Station.

STS-123 (Endeavor) MAR 11, 2008 2:28 am EDT Pad 39-A: D.L. Gorie, G.H. Johnson, R.M. Linnehan, R.L. Behnken, M.J. Foreman, T. Doi, L. Eyharts (down), G.E. Reisman (up)

25th space station flight: Japanese Kibo Logistics Module and Canadian Dextre robotics system

STS-124 (Discovery) MAY 31, 2008 5: 32 pm EDT Pad 39-A: M.E. Kelly, K.T. Ham, K.L. Nyberg, R,J. Garan Jr., M. E. Fossum, A. Hoshide, G.E. Chamitoff(up), G.E. Reisman(down).
26th space station flight: Kibo Japanese Experiment Module – Pressurized Module (JEM-PM) and the Japanese Remote Manipulator System (JEM-RMS). Chamitoff replaces Reisman aboard Space Station.

STS-126 (Endeavor) NOV 14, 2008 7:55 pm EST Pad 39-A: C.J. Ferguson, E.A. Boe, S.G. Bowen, R.S. Kimbrough, H.M. Stefanyshyn-Piper, D.R. Pettit, S.H. Magnus (up), G.E. Chamitoff(down).
27th station flight (ULF2), Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM)

STS-119 (Discovery) MAR 15, 2009 7:43 pm EDT Pad 39-A: L. Archambault, T. Antonelli, J. Acaba, J. Phillips, S. Swanson, R. Arnold. K. Wakata (up), S.H. Magnus (down)
28th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Discovery also will carry the S6 truss segment to the orbital outpost

STS-125 (Atlantis) MAY 11, 2009 2:01 pm EDT Pad 39-A: S.D. Altman, G.C. Johnson, J.M. Grunsfeld, A.J. Feustel, M.T. Good, K.M. McArthur.
Final Hubble servicing mission.

STS-127 (Endeavor) JULY 15, 2009 6:03 pm EDT Pad 39A: M.L. Polansky, G.G. Hurley, D.A. Wolf, C.J.Cassidy, T.H. Marshburn, , J. Payette, T.L. Kopra (up), K Wakata (down).
29th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Japanese Kibo Laboratory complex.

STS-128 (Discovery) AUG 29, 2009 11:59 pm EDT Pad 39A: R. Sturckow, K. Ford, P. Forrester, J. Hernandez, D. Olivas, C. Fuglesang, N. Stott (up), T.L. Kopra (down)
30th shuttle mission to the International Space Station. Leonardo Multi-Purpose Logistics Module. Transition from construction to scientific research.

Space Flight Locations Data

LAUNCH & LANDING (& CONTROL & POLITICS) PLACES: (with thanks to Mark
(Pottenger)

    CAPE CANAVERAL, FLORIDA (city of CC)
    28 N 24   80 W 36
    Tip of Cape on coast is about 28 N 27' 30" & 80 W 31' 30" on map

    EDWARDS AIR FORCE BASE, CALIFORNIA
    34 N 54  117 W 52
    Rogers Lake:  approx. 34 N 49 to 35 N 0 by 117 W 47 to 117 W 55

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLORIDA
    Coordinates read from USGS topographic maps by Mark Pottenger.
    Seconds are uncertain because of size of launch complexes.
    Note: Cape Canaveral was originally a missile testing base in the
    50's. Some of the early complexes were erected to launch particular
    missile types (in many cases, the winged missiles that dominated
    US missile strategy before 1956), and then were torn down.
    Complex  5:   28 N 26' 21"  80 W 34' 25"  (from map)
    Complex  6:   28 N 26' 26"  80 W 34' 22"  (from map)
    Complex 11:   28 N 28' 30"  80 W 32' 23"  (from map)
    Complex 12:   28 N 28' 50"  80 W 32' 32"  (from map)
    Complex 13:   28 N 29'  9"  80 W 32' 41"  (from map)
    Complex 14:   28 N 29' 27"  80 W 32' 49"  (from map)
    Complex 15:   28 N 29' 46"  80 W 32' 58"  (from map)
    Complex 16:   28 N 30'  5"  80 W 33'  7"  (from map)
    Complex 17:   28 N 26' 46"  80 W 33' 57"  (from map)
    Complex 18:   28 N 26' 56"  80 W 33' 43"  (from map)
    Complex 19:   28 N 30' 23"  80 W 33' 16"  (from map)
    Complex 20:   28 N 30' 42"  80 W 33' 24"  (from map)
    Complex 25:   28 N 25' 55"  80 W 34' 28"  (from map)
    Complex 26:   28 N 26' 35"  80 W 34' 18"  (from map)
    Complex 29:   28 N 25' 48"  80 W 34' 32"  (from map)
    Complex 30:   28 N 26' 17"  80 W 34' 50"  (from map)
    Complex 31:   28 N 27'  4"  80 W 33' 19"  (from map)
    Complex 32:   28 N 27' 11"  80 W 33' 16"  (from map)
    Complex 34:   28 N 31' 17"  80 W 33' 41"  (from map)
    Complex 36A:  28 N 28' 17"  80 W 32' 17"  (from map)
    Complex 36B:  28 N 28'  5"  80 W 32' 28"  (from map)
    Complex 37:   28 N 31' 49"  80 W 34'  3"  (from map)
    Complex 39A:  28 N 36' 28"  80 W 36' 15"  (from map)
    Complex 39B:  28 N 37' 38"  80 W 37' 17"  (from map)
    Complex 40:   28 N 33' 43"  80 W 34' 38"  (from map)
    Complex 41:   28 N 35'  0"  80 W 35'  0"  (from map)

    LYNDON B. JOHNSON SPACE CENTER (S.E. of Houston, TX)
    29 N 34   95 W 05  (Rand McNally International Atlas)

    TYURATAM, KAZAKHSTAN, USSR
    45 N 38   63 E 16  (London Times Atlas)

LUNAR LANDING SITES:
Sea of Tranquility:  2 N 40  34 E  
Sea of Tranquility:  0 N 45  23 E 37
Central Bay:         0 N 25   1 W 20
Ocean of Storms:     3 S 30  36 W 25
Ocean of Storms:     1 N 40  41 W 40

Political Elections

©2006 J. Lee Lehman

As we gear up for the November elections, let’s not forget two things. First, when astrologers use a birth chart for the country, it needs a time attached: and there lies the rub. If there is one thing that everybody in the astrological community likes to argue over, it’s the USA chart.


While July 4th is the day everyone celebrates (maybe – but isn’t everybody celebrating today, the 3rd, as well?), that’s now — on July 4, 1776, hardly anybody outside the Continental Congress knew that anything had “happened.” this is why some astrologers have even argued for different dates, like July 2nd, or even years later, when the Articles of Confederation were signed – or even the Constitution ratified.

Without a proper chart – and this includes time, and there, coming up with a time for the ratification or signing of the Declaration is not a straightforward process – annual predictions are difficult at best.

What all this boils down to is that this stuff can be incredibly fascinating, compelling and addictive: but probably not very predictive, because there’s too much of a subjective element. This rather reminds me of the problem I have seen with predicting presidential elections. Since I started paying attention to this in 1980, I have noticed the strongest correlation in prediction being that between who is predicted as the winner, and who that astrologer intends to vote for. In other words, predictions are simply wishful thinking! Far too few astrologers are either able or willing to develop truly objective methods that they can use.

So yes: I can Bush-bash with the best of them, and I sincerely hope that he and his cronies get their come-uppance sooner, rather than later. I fervently hope that every day, more Americans realize what an embarrassment he is. But I am reluctant to “read the signs” that way, because I so want it to be true!

The Sibly Chart (Sag Rising) has probably become the new consensus chart over the Gemini Rising chart since Ronald Reagan’s presidency. It’s interesting. What Rudhyar doesn’t tell anyone about the Sibly chart is what it actually is. If you actually go back to Sibly’s work, he derived the date of July 4, 1776 by working with primary directions to get the “perfection” of the approaching Mars-Saturn opposition from the Aries Ingress of 1776. This rather extensive discussion was then illustrated with the woodcut that everybody now assumes was a timed chart.

This idea presents difficulties. The July 4th date was not being bruted about the Colonies as a particularly significant date. The astrologers of the period (who most likely would have been working the dockyards doing “ships at sea” horaries and electing times for sea voyages) would most likely not have been rushing around trying to find a member of the Continental Congress to get a time!

Another factor which I have not seen discussed was that Sibly, like his earlier colleagues, was a notorious (by modern standards) rectifier. Lilly’s natal section of Christian Astrology, like other typical works of the period, gives an extensive section on how to rectify a chart long before he discusses interpreting it. In his Nativities, Gadbury mentions having taken the time of a relative’s birth with a pocket watch – as if this were a truly unusual occurrence, which of course it was!

All this is by way of saying that Sibly’s discussion has all the earmarks of a post hoc derivation, mostly likely because he wanted to illustrate primaries in a mundane example, and his method “worked out” to July 4th. It is at least as likely that the given time was Sibly’s “take” (i.e., rectification) as anything else – especially since the text makes no mention whatsoever of the chart, nor is the chart itself discussed.

Atlanta Group: Predicting Future Presidential Elections from Past Ones

Ralph Cannizzaro, Frances Rackow, Penny Shelton,and J. Lee Lehman, Ph.D.[1]

Copyright 2000 J. Lee Lehman

There are two possible ways to predict the outcome of a political election: either using mundane charts (such as Ingresses, election day charts, prior lunations), or by comparative natal methods. Lee published some mundane studies in a previous article,[2] and in another article she reported some possible methods comparing natal charts: the actual, instead of the theoretical results for successful candidates.[3] One of the simplest ways to study political elections from a natal perspective is to study presidents’ nativities at the time of their successful elections, compared to the nativity of the unsuccessful candidate. We have restricted this study to presidents and candidates whose data meets the Rodden AA-B criteria.[4] These strictures result in a total of sixteen elections which we can study. These are shown in Table 1.

Table One. Candidate pairs where both candidates have B data or better.

Year Candidates. The candidate with an asterisk (*) won. Date Inaugurated
1864 George B. McClellan (AA) vs Abraham Lincoln* (B) 3/4/1861
1896 William Jennings Bryan (B) vs William McKinley* (A) 3/4/1897
1900 William Jennings Bryan (B) vs William McKinley* (A) 3/4/1901
1908 William Jennings Bryan (B) vs William H Taft* (A) 3/4/1909
1912 Theodore Roosevelt (B) vs Woodrow Wilson* (B) 3/4/1913
1916 Charles Evans Hughes (A) Woodrow Wilson* (B) 3/4/1917
1936 Alf Landon (A) vs Franklin Roosevelt* (AA) 1/20/1937
1940 Wendell Wilkie (A) vs Franklin Roosevelt* (AA) 1/20/1941
1960 Richard Nixon (AA) vs John F. Kennedy* (A) 1/20/1961
1972 George McGovern (A) vs Richard M. Nixon* (AA) 1/20/1973
1976 Gerald Ford (AA) vs James E. Carter* (AA) 1/20/1977
1980 James E. Carter (AA) vs Ronald Reagan*(B) 1/20/1981
1984 Ronald Reagan*(B) vs Walter F. Mondale (AA) 1/20/1985
1988 Michael Dukakis (AA) vs George Bush* (A) 1/20/1989
1992 George Bush (A) vs William Clinton* (A) 1/20/1993
1996 Robert Dole (A) vs William Clinton* (A) 1/20/1997

In class, Lee put forward the following challenge: pick your favorite astrological technique, and see if you can get quantitative results that predict the outcome. This article gives some of these results.

Penny picked profections. Profections are a classical technique in which the Ascendant is moved one house for each year of life. Accordingly: the 1st House gives the first year of life, the 2nd House the 2nd (age one), etc. A chart may be drawn with the profected Ascendant as the 1st House cusp, and the twelve houses interpreted accordingly. Because of the importance of angularity, Penny looked at the Profected 1st and its respective Natal House, the Profected 10th and its respective Natal House, and the Profected Election (based upon November date) from the Profected 1st. House. Then we will look for any combinations which repeat with emphasis on the natal 10th. These results are shown in Table 2.

Table Two. Profections of Presidential Elections – Winners and Losers. Asterisk (*) denotes the predicted winner.

Election of 1864

* Abe Lincoln – Winner
P-1st House in the Natal 8th house. P-10th is the Natal 5th @ 26 Gemini and Mercury is 10Pisces in P-6/N1. P-election is N 4th @7 Gemini and Mercury is 10 Pisces in P6/N1. There is a connection between the Profected 10 and the Profected Election both ruled by Mercury in the natives Natal 1st house. Special note to the Profected 1st house is the Natal 8th house and Lincoln died in office
George McClellan – Losing Party
P-1st House is the Natal 2nd house @12 Libra and Venus is 9 Cap. Conj. Neptune. P-10th House is the Natal 11th @ 23 Cancer and Moon 2 Aqu in the P-4 house. P-Election is the Natal 1st @ 18 Virgo and Mercury is 0Cap in the P3/N4. There is not a connection between any Profected house or ruler.

Election of 1896

* William McKinley – Winner
P-1st is Natal 6th. P-10th is Natal 3rd @ 21 Sag is Jupiter is 5 Aqu in P11/N4. P-Electional is Natal 3rd @ 21 Sag. There is a connection between the Profected 10 and the Profected Election and Jupiter makes is conj the Moon and Sun. Mars also rules the Profected 1sth house and is in rulership sextile to Saturn in the Profected 10th house also the Profected Election House
William Jennings Bryan – Losing Party
P-1st is the Natal 1st @6 Gemini and Mercury is 16 Aries is in the P-11/N11. P-10 is 13 Aqu and Saturn is 20 Leo in the Natal 4th. P-Election is the Natal 8th house. There is no connection between ruler or houses and the P-Election in the Natal 8th.

Election of 1900

* William McKinley – Winner
P-1 is the Natal 10th House @ 29 Cancer and Moon is 6 Aqu. P-10 is the Natal 7th. P-Election is also the Natal 7th @ 25 Aries & Mars is 18 Scorpio. The P-1 Moon ruler is conj Jupiter and Sun in the P-7/N4th. McKinley died in Office in the P-1 is 29 degrees.
William Jennings Bryan – Losing Party
P-1st is the Natal 5th @ 11Virgo and Mercury is 16 Aries in P7/N11. P-10th is Natal 2nd @3 Cancer and Moon is 27 Aqu is P6/N7&8. P-Election is the P-8th and Natal 12th. This is again a losing profection. Also P-8th is 24 Aries and Mars is applying to the Natal 8th house.

Election of 1908

* William Taft – Winner
The P-1 ruler and the P-10th rulers is in the house of the P- Election. P-1 is N4th @23 Cancer and Moon is 27 Leo in the P2/N5. P-10 is N1st @ 9 Tarsus and Venus is 14 Leo in the P2/N5. P-Elections the P2 /N5th.
William Jennings Bryan – Losing Party
P-1 is the N1st. P-10 is the N10th. P-Election is the P8/N8 – becoming a signature of the losing party.

Election of 1912

* Woodrow Wilson – Winner
P-1 is N-10th @ 17 Cancer and Moon is 0Aqu in P-7/N4. P-10 is N-7th @15 Aries & Mars is 17 Aqu in the P-7/N4. P-Election is the P10th and the Natal 7th. Connection again between P1, P10 and the P11 and the Natal 10th house.
Theodore Roosevelt – Losing Party
P-1 is the N7th @ 24 Sag and Jupiter is 21 Gemini in the P6/N1 – this would also be the profected part of death. P10 is the N4th @0Virgo and Mercury is 2 Scorpio, Combust in the P11/N5th. P-Elections the Natal 1st. There is no connection between any house of planet.

Election of 1916

* Woodrow Wilson – Winner
P1 is the N12th @ 20 Virgo and Mercury is 18 Cap. P10 is N9th @11 Gemini and Mercury is 18 Cap. P-Election is the Natal 10th. Definite connections between profected houses and natal 10th.
Charles Evans Hughes – Losing Party
P1 is N7th @ 26 Taurus, conj Algol, Venus is 8 Pisces. P10 is N4th @ 11 Pisces and Venus is 8 Pisces. P Election is N1st @ 25 Scorpio and Mars is 5 Aqu. Again there is no connection between houses.

Election of 1936

* Franklin Roosevelt – Winner

P1 is N7th @ 23 Pisces and Jupiter is 16 Taurus in the P3/N9. P10 is N4th @ 22 Sag and Jupiter is 16 Taurus is the P3/N9. P-Election is N4 @ 22 Sag and Jupiter is 16 Taurus is the P3/N9. Connections between all houses
Alf Landon – Losing Party
P1 is N2nd @ 24 Sag and Jupiter is 3 Scorpio square Saturn. P10 is N11 @ 11 Libra and Venus is 4 Libra conj Uranus. P-Election is N2 @1 Aqu and Saturn is 2 Leo conj Mars. In the P8th house. Again the 8th house connection at time of Election and no other winning connections.

Election of 1940

* Franklin Roosevelt – Winner
P1 is N10th @ 22 Gemini and Mercury’s 27 Aqu P9/N6. P10 is N7th @ 23 Pisces and Jupiter is 16 Taurus P12/N9. P-Election is N7 @23 Pisces. Again Connection between profected houses and natal 10th.
Wendell Wilkie – Losing Party
P1 is N1 @26 Virgo and Saturn is 28 Virgo P8/N8. P10 is N10 @19 Scorpio and Mars is 15 Sag in 11. P-Election is N9 @ 22 Libra and Venus is 5 Aries in the P2/N2. Connection between P1 and natal 8th for losing without any additional connection between houses to support a win.

Election of 1960

John F. Kennedy – Winner
P1 is N8th @ 14 Taurus and Venus is 16 Gemini. P10 is N5th @ 28 Aqu and Saturn is 27 Cancer in P3/N10. P – Election is P6 or N1 and Venus is 16 Gemini in the P2/N9. Venus squares Moon (ruler of natal 10th). Many connections with the 8th house and he did die in office.
Richard Nixon – Losing Party
P1 is N12th @8 Leo and Sun is 19 Cap oppose Neptune in the P12th. P10 is N9 @11 Taurus and Venus is 3 Pisces P7/N6. P- Election is N9 – Saturn is Rx in the 9th house. This one may have been tougher to call. As both have connections but Nixon’s are somewhat weaker.

Election of 1972

Richard Nixon – Winner
P1 is N12 @ 21 Leo and Sun is 19 Cap in the P6/N5th. P10 is N9@ 11 Taurus and Venus is 3 Pisces P7/N6. P-Election is P10/N9. It is interesting that the two times Nixon ran for President were both P12 house years. One he lost and one he won and why did he win the 2nd time and not the first –see McGovern’s chart.
George McGovern
P1 is N3 @ 9 Leo and Sun is 25 Cancer in the P12/N2. P10 is N12 @ 20 Taurus and Venus is 4 Virgo in P2/N4. P-Election is P4/N6 @20 Scorpio and Mars 11 Sag in the P4/N6. McGovern does not have connections between houses.

Election of 1976

* James Earl Carter – Winner
P1 is N5th @ 2 Pisces and Jupiter is 14 Sag in P10/N2. P10 is N2nd @ 22 Scorpio and Mars is 25 Aqu is P12/N4. P-Election is N6 @ 0Aries and Mars is 25 Aqu is P12/N4.
Gerald Ford – Losing Party
P1is N4 @24 Cancer and Moon is 3Sag in P4/N7. P10 is N1st @13 Taurus and Venus is 5Gemini in P10/N1. P-Election is N7 @13 Scorpio and Mars is 19 Taurus in P10/N1. Neptune conj P1/N4 and Moon opposes Venus in the P10. Carter chart is stronger with more connections.

Election of 1980

* Ronald Reagan – Winner

P1 is N10th @21 Libra and Venus is 3 Pisces in P5/N2. P10 is N7th @27 Gemini and Merc is 21 Cap in P4/N1. P- Election is P9 and N6 @4 Gemini and Merc is 21 Cap in P4/N1 conj Uranus.
Jimmy Carter – Losing Party
P1 is N9 @23 Gemini and Mercury is 21 Virgo P3/N11. P10 is N6 @0 Aries and Mars is 25 Aqu in the P8/N4 (losing indicator). P-Elections N10 @28 Cancer and Moon 13 Scorpio in P5/N1. The connections again between the P8 seems to be strong for losing.

Election of 1984

* Ronald Reagan – Winner
P1 is N2 @1 Aqu and Saturn is 0 Taurus in P3/N4. P10 is N11 @14 Scorpio and Mars is 3 Cap in P12/N1. Pefect is P10 in N11 at 14 Scorpio. Connection between P10 and P- Election.
Walter Mondale – Losing Party
P1 is N9 @29 Scorpio and Mars is 20 Sag in P2/N10. P10 is N6 @ 26 Cancer and Moon is in the P8/N4 – Signature of Losing Party. P Election is P11 & N7 @ 6Virgo and Mercury is P3/N11 and Combust.

Election of 1988

* George Bush – Winner
P1 is N5 @28 Cap and Saturn is 25 Libra in P12/N2. P10 is N2 @16 Libra and Venus is 17 Cancer in P6/N10. P-Election is N9 @15 Taurus and Venus is 17 Cancer in P6/N10 conj. Pluto.
Michael Dukakis – Losing Party
P1 is N8@ 3 Cap and Saturn is 10Aqu in P2/N10 (8th house is signature of Losing Party). P10 in N6 @8 Virgo and Mercury is 3 Sag in P12/N7. P -Elections N8 again signature of Losing Party.

Election of 1992

* Bill Clinton – Winner
P1 is N11 @10 Leo and Sun is 26 Leo in rulership. P10 is N8 @1 Taurus and Venus is 11 Libra, in rulership at P3/N1. P-Election is N1@5Libra and Venus is 11 Libra in rulership at P3/N1. Clinton has all planets in rulership in spite of the 8th house connection.
George Bush – Losing Party
P1 is N8 @16 Aries and Mars is 25 Aqu (weaker than Clinton). P10 is N5 @ 28 Cap. And Saturn is 25 Libra in P7/N2. P Election is P5 and N12 @28 Leo and Sun is 21 Gemini. 8th house connection with planets in weaker dignity than Clinton.

Election of 1996

* Bill Clinton – Winner
P1 is N3 @1 Sag and Jupiter is 23 Libra in P11/N1. P10 is N12 @9 Virgo and Mercury is 7 Leo in P9/N11. P-Election is N5 @10 Aqu and Saturn is 2 Leo in P8/N10.
Robert Dole – Losing Party
P1 is N2 @10 Gemini and Mercury is 28 Cancer in P3/N4. P10 is N11 @13 Aqu and Saturn is 14 Libra in P5/N6. P-Election is N6 @18Virgo and Mercury is 28 Cancer in P3/N4. Mercury is Combust. Having the Ruler of the Election combust has also proven to be a signature for the losing party. This Election would also have been somewhat difficult to forecast.

Election of 2000

George W. Bush – forecast as Losing Party
P1 is N7 @7 Aqu and Saturn is 26 Cancer in P6/N12. P10 is N4 @24 Libra and Venus is 21 Leo in P7/N1 conj. Pluto. P-Election is P5 and is N11 @ 0 Gemini and Mercury is 9 Leo separating from Pluto in P7/N1.
Al Gore – forecast as Winner
P1 is N5 @0 Sag and Jupiter is 28 Sag in rulership conj Moon in P1/N5. P10 is N2 @ 26 Leo and Sun is 10 Aries in P5/N9. P-Election is P8 and N12 @4 Cancer and Moon 3 Cap.

Of the sixteen elections, two were too close to call, and the others worked according to this model. As far as 2000 is concerned, Gore’s chart has greater dignity. Neither Bush nor Gore has connections between houses. We have seen the P1 house in dignity as the winner in the past. Al Gore does have an 8th house connection this may indicate a death in office. Bush does not have any contacts for winning. This is only slight favor for Gore.

Fran picked solar arcs. Her results are shown in Table 3.

The examples do not give enough results to determine whether the Nodes or Fortuna should count in the weighting, in each case the winner had more angular planets where the system worked. In every case where the system did not work, Mars was angular for the losing candidate.

If we consider that this is a Jupiter/Saturn conjunction year which is the “Presidential Death Cycle” Fran is concerned for Gore because his SA Moon is only 2 degrees from the 8th house and his SA Uranus is less than a degree from the natal Saturn/Pluto midpoint in the 1st house. (Sat/Plu is a death axis in Cosmobiology.)

Fran noted the Aries Point, or any SA planet directed to zero degrees of a cardinal sign because this point is associated with being in the public eye or achieving prominence according to Cosmobiology.

Ralph’s model was so simple, it didn’t require a table to explain. He looked at the progressed 10th, its ruler and the dignity/debility of the ruler, and the number of planets on the progressed angles.

Looking at outer planets in the 10th, with Saturn there the nominee had 1 win and 4 losses; Neptune there had 2 wins and 1 loss; Uranus 0 wins and 2 losses; Pluto 2 wins and 2 losses; Jupiter did not appear there. Overall, 5 wins and 9 losses.

Second, the nominee with the higher score for dignity/debility of the progressed 10th ruler had 6 wins and 4 losses(60%); there were 5 draws.

Third, the nominee with the most number of planets, including the luminaries, had 7 wins and 5 losses(58%); there were 2 draws.

So far nothing was exciting.

However, then he noticed the Vertex was an extraordinary indicator. The closer the Vertex to the Midheaven, the greater the chance of winning. The closer to the Descendant (the Portals of Death?), the greater the chance of losing.

Asking one question, ” Whose progressed Vertex is closest to the Midheaven?” results in 14 wins and 0 losses!

While both Bush and Gore are a poor sample in that neither has his Vertex anywhere near the mc, with both in the 7th, a bad place to be, Gore’s is 6 degrees closer to the Midheaven. Hence, Gore wins.

Here we see three completely different methods, all producing interesting looking results from a historical standpoint, and all predicting the same outcome this year: Gore by a small margin. Do the methods work predictively? We shall see!

[1] Also known as Lee’s Atlanta Classical Studies Group. Ralph has completed Classical Studies in Electional, Mundane and Gaming; Frances has completed Classical Studies in Horary; Penny has completed Classical Studies in Horary, Natal, Electional, Mundane and Gaming.

[2] J. Lee Lehman. 1998. Presidential Elections as Warfare. Horary Practitioner 9: 47-51.

[3] J. Lee Lehman. 2000. US Presidential Elections: The Use of Past Elections to Predict Future Outcomes. Astrological Journal 42(5): 6-15.

[4] Thanks to Lois Rodden and Mark McDonough for the work which has culminated in the AstroDataBank ®. All the data here is from the ADB, except for Ronald Reagan’s data, which was reported on their web site (http://www.astrodatabank.com/) as finally achieving B status. Full descriptions of the Rodden Ratings are also available on the site.

SA= Solar Arc Worked?
1864 Abraham Lincoln v. George B. McClellan Lincoln had SA Jupiter conjunct natal Moon in his first house, while McClellan had Mars conjunct the 7th cusp. Tie. Jupiter beat Mars
1896 William Jennings Bryan v. William McKinley Bryan lost with only Solar Arc Jupiter in the 4th, McKinley had SA Mercury 3 degrees from the Descendant, but also at the Pluto/Desc midpoint, and SA Venus in the 4th Yes. Counting Mercury as angular
1900 William Jennings Bryan v. William McKinley The same pair, this time Bryan’s SA Sun was in the 12th! By now, McKinley’s SA Mercury was to the 7th house cusp, SA Fortuna conjunct natal Venus, and SA Venus is still in the 4th. Nothing of Bryan had become angular. yes
1908 William Taft v. William Jennings Bryan By election number 3, Bryan’s Mars was in the 10th, and Mercury was conjunct Uranus just 2 degrees from his ASC. Taft had Solar Arc Sun in the 7th, Solar Arc Neptune and North Node in the 1st House. His SA Asc was at zero Cancer, the “Aries Point” and SA Fortuna was in the 4th. 2 planets each-tie. Mars doesn’t help!
1912 Woodrow Wilson v. Theodore Roosevelt Roosevelt had a lot of angularity: SA Sun, Mercury, Moon Mars and Pluto. Wilson had SA Uranus just one degree past his MC and Pluto at the Aries Point Square Natal Jupiter. No. Mars angular harms again.
1916 Woodrow Wilson v. Charles Evans Hughes Hughes had SA Mars in the 4th, with Neptune 1 degree applying to the 7th. Wilson had Solar Arc Venus 2 degrees into the 7th house, Uranus still in the 10th, and SA Moon at the Aries Point. Tie. Venus beat Mars
1936 Franklin D. Roosevelt v. Alf Landon Landon had SA Saturn and Mars in the 10th, SA Uranus in the 1st. Roosevelt had SA Sun and Venus in the 7th, SA Fortuna on the MC, and SA Pluto, Jupiter, Neptune and Saturn all in the 10th. yes
1940 Franklin D Roosevelt v. Wendell Wilkie Wilkie had SA Mars in the 1st, SA Venus conjunct Fortuna in the 4th, SA Pluto one degree from the 7th. FDR had SA Fortuna conjunct natal Mars in the 10th, plus SA Saturn, Neptune, Jupiter and Pluto were still in the 10th. yes
1960 John F. Kennedy v. Richard Nixon Nixon had SA Uranus in the 7th, and SA Saturn in the 10th. JFK had Solar Arc Venus and Pluto in the 10th, No. Node and Uranus in the 4th, SA Moon in the 1st yes
1972 Richard Nixon v. George McGovern McGovern had SA Moon in the 1st, SA Sun in the 4th. Nixon had SA Neptune in the 1st, SA Sun in the 7th, and Uranus in the 7th. yes, Nixon had one more angular planet.
1976 Jimmy Carter v. Gerald Ford Ford had SA Moon in the 10th, SA Venus and Saturn in the 4th (Saturn really in orb of the 5th.) Carter had SA Mercury conjunct natal Moon in the first, SA Jupiter in the 4th, and SA Uranus in the 7th. yes
1980 Ronald Reagan v. Jimmy Carter Carter still had SA Jupiter in the 4th, SA Mercury in the 1st, Uranus in the 7th. Reagan’s SA MC was at the Aries point, in the 1st. SA Sun was in the 4th, Saturn, Moon, NN 7th. Jupiter was in the 1st at the midpoint of natal 1st house Mercury/Uranus. yes
1984 Ronald Reagan v. Walter Mondale Mondale had Mercury in the 1st and Pluto in the 7th. Reagan still had 5 angular planets, plus the Nodes and SA MC. yes
1988 George Bush v. Michael Dukakis Dukakis had SA Jupiter in the 7th, Mars and Venus in the 10th, Uranus in the 1st, and Pluto in the 4th. George Bush had SA Moon at 20 Sag, Fortuna at 21 Sag and natal IC at 21 Sag. No. (Mars was angular for Dukakis)
1992 Bill Clinton v. George Bush Bush had SA Venus conjunct the natal Asc. Bill Clinton had SA Moon conjunct the MC, Uranus and No. Node in the 10th, SA Sun in the 1st conjunct natal Venus. yes
1996 Bill Clinton v. Robert Dole Dole had the SA Asc conjunct the natal IC, SA Jupiter in the 7th. Clinton had SA Sun in the 1st, Moon in the 10th, No. Node in the 10th conjunct natal Mercury. Yes
2000 Al Gore v. George W Bush Gore has SA Uranus in the 1st – so does Bush. Gore also has SA Jupiter in the 7th, and Moon, although the Moon is only 2 degrees from the 8th house cusp. Bush has SA N Node in the 1st, SA Mars in the 4th, and SA Neptune in the 4th. So, Gore has two planets that count as angular, Bush has three. Most elections have not been this close! What makes matters less clear is that Bush has Mars as an angular planet which has never won in our sample. ???
Results of Initial Investigation
Total Examples with results 16 100%
Number where angular planets alone predicted outcome 11 69%
Number where there was a tie between the candidates 3 19%
Number where results were incorrect 2 13%
Results if we conclude that Mars Angular indicates a loser:
Total Examples with results 16 100%
# where angular planets, plus Mars denotes Loser, correct 16 100%
Number where there was a tie between the candidates 0 0%
Number where results were incorrect 0 0%